Examine how the steps in the Cycle of Change Model were employed by a familiar organization to undertake a successful major organizational change.

BUS503, Module 4 – Home

The “Cycle of Change” Model

Modular Learning Outcomes

Upon successful completion of this module, the student will be able to satisfy the following outcomes:

•Case ◦Examine how the steps in the Cycle of Change Model were employed by a familiar organization to undertake a successful major organizational change.

•SLP ◦Examine how the material included in a journal article or textbook chapter that is of interest to the student may be applied to a personal or workplace change.

Module Overview

In this final module of the course, we will visit the Cycle of Change Model. There are six (6) distinct steps in this model of change, each of which we will discuss in-depth. The Cycle of Change Model encompasses the notion of “Change Management,” as well as the familiar process of “Project Management.” At the outset of the change process, a “driver” is identified, the change as a concept is made tangible (i.e., the systems, people, and processes are made tangible) and operationalized. The change is delivered and as stated by Campbell (2014), the change is propagated. Change is successful to the degree that the value (or benefits) recognized by the organization are the same or better than the value (benefits) stated at the outset of the organizational change and transformation process.

Clearly, excellent leadership is central to any organizational change or transformation. Excellent leadership is inspirational. It motivates (inspires) the organization’s people to assume an active role in the organizational change, in order that the value and benefits (outcomes) anticipated at the outset of the change management process are realized.

de Souza Watters, A. (2016, May 3). Abridged research report: A leader’s role in evoking inspiration in organisations. Civil Service College – Singapore. Retrieved from https://www.cscollege.gov.sg/Knowledge/Pages/Leadersroleininspiration.aspx

Module 4 – Background

The “Cycle of Change” Model

Required Reading

In Module 4, we will discuss the steps associated with organizational change:

1.Direct the change: The organization is focused toward a specific outcome or result; the nature of the change is clearly articulated and is universally agreed upon.

2.Drive the change: The vision is made known; the organization’s people are made aware of—and begin to take ownership of—the change. Driving the change is the process of ensuring that the people who are responsible are energized (momentum is the operative word at this stage of change). A single individual (the “driver”) of the change is identified.

3.Deliver the change: The change transitions from a concept to a tangible plan. It is at this stage the Project Management begins; the right people, systems and processes are identified and become involved in the change.

4.Prepare for the change: Prepare people; prepare the environment. This stage requires “Change Management” (management of change) and a “Change Manager.” The organization’s people must be receptive. Moreover, the environment is a key point of focus (that is, the organizational culture), as the culture must be consistent with the change.

5.Propagate the change: Disseminate the change; ensure that the change “sticks.” In the text Managing organizational change, Campbell (2014) states that the word “propagate” is the only word that “adequately implies the level of care and nurturing required to get a fragile change to stick to the extent that you need to sustainably deliver benefits (Section 4.5, para. 4).

6.Profit from the change: Realize the benefits (value) from successful change.

Each of the foregoing stages of the change process are discussed in-depth in the Managing Organizational Change text. Read Sections 4.1 through 4.6:

Managing Organizational Change by Helen Campbell

Campbell, H. (2014). Managing organizational change: A practical toolkit for leaders. Philadelphia, PA: Kogan Page. Retrieved from EBSCO—eBook Collection.

Optional Reading

If you would like additional resources to help you in completion of the Case Assignment, please consider the following:

For a very good overview of how change occurs in the context of the organization’s systems, please read Chapter 7 of the Focusing on Organizational Change text. Systems thinking theory relates to Step 3 of the Cycle of Change Model (“Deliver the Change”):

Judge, W. (n.d.). Focusing on organizational change. Retrieved from http://www.oercommons.org/courses/focusing-on-organizational-change/view

It goes without saying that good communication is an imperative in any organizational event. Chapter 8 of the Focusing on Organizational Change text provides an excellent overview of how to overcome communications challenges. Note the author’s citation of George Bernard Shaw’s quote:

“The single biggest problem in communication is the illusion that it has taken place.”

Judge, W. (n.d.). Focusing on organizational change. Retrieved from http://www.oercommons.org/courses/focusing-on-organizational-change/view

The Change Leaders Network is replete with outstanding articles and several webinars related to organizational change and change management. Following is a truly excellent article on the nature of communication in the change process:

Anderson, L. A., & Anderson, D. A. (2015). Six faulty assumptions about organizational change communications. Change Leaders Network. Retrieved from http://changeleadersnetwork.com/free-resources/six-faulty-assumptions-about-change-communications

The Free Management Library is an exemplary source of information on all leadership and management topics. Of interest to us in this final module of the course is the section entitled “Approaches and Methods for Managing Change.” Be sure to review the section on “Systems Thinking” (related to Step 3 of the Cycle of Change Model: “Deliver the Change”):

McNamara, C. (n.d.). Approaches and methods for managing change. Free Management Library. Retrieved from http://managementhelp.org/organizationalchange/index.htm

Step 2 of the Cycle of Change Model (“Drive the Change”) requires engagement of key stakeholders. In the following article, the Change Leaders Network provides an excellent tool for designing a stakeholder engagement strategy:

Anderson, L. A., & Anderson, D. A. (2015). Designing your engagement strategy. Change Leaders Network. Retrieved from http://changeleadersnetwork.com/free-resources/designing-your-engagement-strategy

Note how the steps in the Cycle of Change Model are referenced (albeit indirectly) in this webinar from the Change Leaders Network. This webinar is highly recommended:

Anderson, L. (2015). Savvy strategies for implementing a common change methodology [Webinar]. Change Leaders Network. Retrieved from http://changeleadersnetwork.com/free-resources

Module 4 – Case ASSIGNMENT

The “Cycle of Change” Model

Case Assignment

For the Module 4 Case Assignment, you will use the Cycle of Change Model to evaluate the organizational transformation process of a familiar company: Caterpillar, Inc.

Read the following case study about Caterpillar’s organizational transformation. As you read through the case, be sure that you carefully consider how the various steps in the Cycle of Change Model were employed by Caterpillar as it undertook its massive—yet immensely successful—organizational transformation. Essentially, Caterpillar “wrote the book” as to how major organizational change should be successfully accomplished.

Neilson, G. L., & Pasternack, B. A. (2005). The cat that came back. Strategy+Business. Retrieved from https://www.strategy-business.com/article/05304?gko=56862

After reading the Caterpillar change case study, respond to the following in a well-written 5- to 6-page paper:

1.Apply the Cycle of Change Model to the Caterpillar case study, that is, a.Direct the change: Minimally, describe the process by which Caterpillar determined the nature and scope of the change needed. Did the organization explicitly state what the expected outcome(s) of the transformation would be? How well was the change articulated?

b.Drive the change: How was the company’s new vision made known? What was the process for “driving” and energizing people involved with and responsible for the organizational transformation?

c.Deliver the change: Describe the process by which Caterpillar delivered the change (project management, e.g.).

d.Prepare for the change: Discuss Caterpillar’s change management process; how were the company’s people and culture prepared for such a massive transformation? .

e.How was the change propagated throughout the organization?

f.What benefits/ value did Caterpillar realize from the organizational transformation process? Were the outcomes consistent with the benefits that were contemplated at the outset of the planning process?

2.With the understanding that Caterpillar’s transformation was tremendously successful, provide your impressions concerning the extent to which Caterpillar adhered to the Cycle of Change Model.

3.Related to Item #2, what did Caterpillar do particularly well in terms of following the Cycle of Change Model sequence?

4.Conclude your paper by providing recommendations as to what Caterpillar might have done differently to improve the organizational transformation.

The following sources may also be helpful to you in the completion of the Case assignment, as it provides very current background on Caterpillar.

Hymen, J. (2017, July 18). 3 reasons to be bullish on Caterpillar (CAT) ahead of earnings. Nasdaq. Retrieved from http://www.nasdaq.com/article/3-reasons-to-be-bullish-on-caterpillar-cat-ahead-of-earnings-cm817686

Caterpillar ranks #47 on Fortune’s “Most Admired Companies” list, and is ranked #59 on the 2017 Fortune 500 list:

Caterpillar. (2017). Fortune. Retrieved from http://fortune.com/worlds-most-admired-companies/caterpillar/

Assignment Expectations

1.Your task for this assignment is to “map” the events you’ve read in the case study to the various steps in the Cycle of Change Model. Bear in mind that Caterpillar did not utilize the Cycle of Change Model as the “script” by which the company undertook the various steps of its organizational transformation. Therefore, you may not find that Caterpillar followed the Cycle of Change Model precisely, and in certain instances, you will likely be required to interpret how Caterpillar fulfilled some step(s) in the Cycle of Change Model sequence.

2.Your paper must be at least 5-6 pages in length.

3.Be sure that you incorporate sources found at the Background page into your written analysis.

4.You may want to review information about the industry in the library’s IBISWorld resource.

5.Be sure that you properly cite all sources used in your paper (APA Style) in-text and in your end referencing.

6.Upload your Module 4 Case to the Dropbox before or on the assignment due date.


The “Cycle of Change” Model

For the final SLP in this course, you will be given a fair degree of latitude to explore some aspect of Organizational Change and Transformation. The SLP for this module requires that you visit the library, and that you choose a chapter from a textbook or a journal, trade magazine, or newspaper article that is of interest to you, and that is related to some aspect of organizational change and transformation.

You will then choose some portion of the chapter or article that is of interest to you, briefly summarize the contents of what you have read, and then apply the contents of what you have read to some aspect of your personal life and/or workplace (remember that organizational change theory extends beyond organizations, and that it applies to personal changes as well as changes that occur in the workplace).

Be creative! Use your imagination and critical thinking skills as you consider how change theory you read applies either to your person or to some workplace experience you have had. Importantly, you have flexibility to choose your topic and its application, so long as you can demonstrate that you are able to effectively apply the theory/ concepts you have read to your personal or organizational life.

Visit the library, and perform a search using one or more of the following keywords:

1.Organizational Change;

2.Organizational Transformation; and/or

3.Change Management.

After choosing and reading some aspect of a book chapter or article that is of particular interest to you, respond to the following in a well-written 3- to 4-page paper:

1.Summarize what you have read from the article or chapter you have selected. Be sure to cite specific concepts that are applicable to the personal or work experience you have selected for this module (one page).

2.What did the author say that was particularly relevant and/or of particular significance to the past personal and/or work experience you have selected? Why did you select this particular chapter or article?

3.How have the organizational change and transformation concepts you have selected informed your personal or work experience? What new understanding or insights do you have after having had applied these concepts to your personal or work circumstances?

SLP Assignment Expectations

1.Your SLP should be 3-4 pages in length (not including Cover and Reference pages).

2.Be sure to cite your sources using APA Style.

3.Upload your paper to the SLP 4 Dropbox before the assignment due date.

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