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Organizational Change and Total Quality Management

Based on the textbook and reading assignment, “Changing Organizational Culture to Adapt to a Community Policing Philosophy,” what are two issues encountered while transitioning an organization to a community policing philosophy? What barriers impede the effectiveness of Total Quality Management (TQM) in the process of improving organizational structure that can best facilitate community policing? How do “traditional” policing attitudes improve or impede organizational change?  

Your initial response should be 250-300 words in length. Please support your claims with examples from the text and/or scholarly articles. Read the article, and list references thanks all questions need answered

I posted the article below we are supposed to read(I will)

The citation  for the article is Hafner, M. R. (2003, September). Changing organizational culture to adapt to community policing philosophy. FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin, 72(9), 6-9. doi: 451023311

Many police agencies experience difficulties when trying to motivate officers to enthusiastically embrace a community policing philosophy. Agencies often start costly community policing programs only to find that few officers actually partake in the transformation while most continue to operate under traditional reactionary modes of law enforcement. Police managers first must create an organizational culture that communicates direction and mission before empowering officers to start community policing programs. Otherwise, the agency will have many programs, but the underlying organizational culture will not develop a partnership with the community–the main ingredient required for a community policing philosophy.

The Problem

On January 29, 2001, I accepted the chief of police position in Keller, Texas, a community of 30,000 residents located in the Dallas/Fort Worth metropolis. During the past decade, the city of Keller has grown rapidly from a small rural town to an upscale community with a high demand for customer service. I quickly learned that the department had well-trained officers, an adequate level of funding, and community policing programs, such as bike and mounted patrols and a citizen police academy. But, something was missing; an underlying dissension existed in the community. Citizens perceived the department as an agency that suppressed and harassed people, particularly the youth.

Officers were not breaking the law; however, they did not appear as professional, compassionate, and courteous as they should have. The local newspaper had printed several editorials from citizens complaining about police harassment. Before I arrived, the community had shown their dissatisfaction toward the department by rejecting a local sales tax referendum that would have provided new funding for community policing programs.

The Plan

After spending 6 months listening to the public and observing day-to-day police operations, I determined that the Keller Police Department, as an organization, failed to continuously improve and adapt to change. It was a competent law enforcement agency, but it lacked the ability to develop a meaningful partnership with the community. At one of the first staff meetings, I asked the supervisors and managers to articulate the agency’s mission statement and core values. Most could not genuinely answer the question, and the ones that attempted to provide a response only talked about the enforcement aspect of the job. An emphasis on building partnerships with the community while providing value-driven service committed to excellence was missing. The employees were not acting as a team but, rather, as individuals with their own agendas. Certain cliques existed among departmental leaders and employees. For example, one clique emphasized enforcing laws, while another focused on building partnerships with the community. The organization lacked a common mission and vision.

Police agencies must have mission statements that incorporate the residents’ desires and visions of what they want their department to focus on. I spent 6 months talking to residents, business leaders, high school students, and senior citizens, asking them to help shape the future of their police agency. I shared the information I gained with the agency’s staff at a retreat we conducted away from the department location. I created a mission statement easy to remember that contained the essential elements necessary to bring a meaningful change: The Keller Police Department is a value-driven organization committed to excellence and will partner with the community to make Keller a better place to live, visit, and conduct business. Together, at the retreat, we adopted our new mission statement and the organizational philosophy to carry it out; we exhaustively discussed the statement and the plan to implement it.

The next step included building an organizational culture that would work enthusiastically toward meeting our mission. The Keller command staff realized that we would never achieve the optimal level of service externally until we began to perform at the optimal level internally. Police agencies often find it hard to motivate officers and employees to embrace a community policing philosophy because, although managers communicate the expectations regarding problem resolution and customer service, it is business as usual internally. The culture inside serves as a mirror effect outside.

The Keller Police Department adopted a philosophy of continuous improvement. Individuals and organizations should recognize how adept they are, but they never should become complacent. Learning leads to improvement, which, in turn, requires learning. We understood that we effectively could not embrace a community policing philosophy without improvement.

One of the agency’s lieutenants who understood the vision, mission, and values required to bring about a lasting change needed by our department developed our culture around a philosophy he named “E to the 4th power.” All of our decisions, choices, and relationships are built on empathy, edification, enthusiasm, and excellence. When we focus on others and not ourselves, we become much happier and content. We strive to proactively create value in all that we do and with everyone we encounter. Unfortunately, many people descend into the pitfalls of self-focusing. In our work life, this translates into bad morale, selfishness, dissension, low productivity, and the popular “us against them mentality.” In our personal life, it results in depression, addiction, broken relationships, and self-pity. Therefore, we trained and developed team members to realize that the secret of a happy existence means serving something larger than ourselves and continually improving. We tested all of our individual and organizational decisions, choices, actions, and thoughts against E to the 4th power. If our decisions, choices, and actions did not promote E to the 4th power, we were not truly in line with our organizational philosophy. The mission statement identified our commitment to the external customer, and the organizational philosophy demonstrated our commitment to each other as team members.

The Results

For the first time, the direction and expectations became clear to everyone within the organization. Now, we test all of our initiatives and actions using two questions: Does it make Keller a better place to live, visit, and conduct business? And, does it promote E to the 4th power? We even ask these questions in reference to budget expenditures for equipment, training, personnel, and new programs. If one action fails the test, we do not continue to consider it. We believe that if our organization spends the time developing better people, we, in turn, will become better employees.

Our community policing programs now have a meaning of value attached to them. Our employees are more empowered and receive greater job satisfaction. Employees use less sick leave, and the corresponding overtime expenditures remain within our budget goals. The change in our philosophy has secured very competitive wages and benefits, and employees rarely leave the organization. Now, peers hold each other accountable using the mission statement and E to the 4th power. On their own, officers have placed the mission statement on the sun visors of their patrol cars to continuously remind them of their focus to build partnerships with the community.

The quality of life for all stakeholders has improved dramatically. Community support for the police department has risen, and the negative editorials in the local newspaper have ended. Keller citizens gave their stamp of approval by overwhelmingly voting for an increase in the sales tax to fund a building expansion project. The Keller Chamber of Commerce endorsed the sales tax referendum and, after its passage, awarded the distinguished service award for 2001 to the Keller Police Department for exceptional service to the community. These results sent a strong message to the employees that we are heading in the right direction.

Our external communications with the public showed a dramatic increase since we adopted our new mission statement and organizational philosophy. The e-safe program that allows citizens to communicate with our department via the Internet increased from 495 e-mails in 2000 to 2,565 e-mails in 2001. Our calls for service also increased from 30,844 to 38,376 during that time period. Our employees are working harder to serve the public. Additionally, our internal communications have improved with monthly newsletters from the chief and a commendation folder in a computer software program that allows employees to commend each other for actions that clearly exhibit E to the 4th power.

Additionally, the Keller Police Department made the symbol of our organizational culture the actual performance evaluation. If E to the 4th power is the basis and foundation of how we make decisions and choices, then we have to actually measure ourselves by empathy, edification, enthusiasm, and excellence. Now, our individual behaviors and attitudes impact our salary step raises in addition to the traditional performance measures, Moreover, the city manager has recognized the contagious effect of E to the 4th power and organized a committee to implement it citywide.


The task of proactively developing and creating value to others is imperative to any agency that desires an effective community policing program. Police managers should talk with community residents to gain, their input in helping to shape their agency. Further, all department employees must share a common vision.

Once an agency designs a mission statement to form a partnership with the community, it then can create an internal philosophy based on empathy, edification, enthusiasm, and excellence. Police departments must clarify their expectations and mission before they attempt to empower employees to begin programs within their communities. Without partnership relationships internally, law enforcement managers cannot expect their employees to build them externally.

Elements of E to the 4th Power


Listen first

View things from the

of others

Be mature

Forgive others

Seek win-win solutions

Share information exhaustively

Be open to learning


Build partnership relationships

Empower and recognize each other

Be a team member

Create value to receive value

Honor those who are absent


Have fun

Serve each other as internal customers

Improve the quality of life for all stake-‘


Adapt to change

Take ownership

Be passionate


Have high expectations

Take pride

Have high performance and ethical


Be accountable

Be problem-resolution oriented

Be quality driven


By Mark R. Hafner, M.P.A.

Chief Hafner heads the Keller, Texas, Police Department.

Required Text

Oliver, W. (2008). Community-oriented policing: A systematic approach to policing (4th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education, Inc. ISBN 13: 978-0-13-158987-2

  1. Chapters order to successfully complete this week’s assignments, read the following chapters from the text, Community-Oriented Policing: A Systematic Approach to Policing:
  • Chapter Seven  – Organization and Management
  • Chapter Eight – The Role of the Police
  • Chapter Nine – The role of the Community

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