This week, you will submit the annotation of a quantitative research article (ATTACHED) on a topic of your interest (Organizational Culture and production). Quasi-experimental, casual comparative, correlational, pretest–posttest, or true experimental are examples of types of research designs used in quantitative research.
An annotation consists of three separate paragraphs that cover three respective components: summary, analysis, and application. These three components convey the relevance and value of the source. As such, an annotation demonstrates your critical thinking about, and authority on, the source.
An annotated bibliography is a document containing selected sources accompanied by a respective annotation of each source. In preparation for your own future research, an annotated bibliography provides a background for understanding a portion of the existing literature on a particular topic. It is also a useful first step in gathering sources in preparation for writing a subsequent literature review as part of a dissertation.
Please review the assignment instructions below and click on the underlined words for information about how to craft each component of an annotation.
It is recommended that you use the grading rubric as a self-evaluation tool before submitting your assignment.
By Day 7
- Annotate one quantitative research article from a peer-reviewed journal on a topic of your interest.
- Provide the reference list entry for this article in APA Style followed by a three-paragraph annotation that includes:
- A summary
- An analysis
- An application as illustrated in this example
- Format your annotation in Times New Roman, 12-point font, double-spaced. A separate References list page is not needed for this assignment.
- Submit your annotation.
]Maamari, B. E., & Saheb, A. (2018). How organizational culture and leadership style affect employees’ performance of genders. International Journal of Organizational Analysis, 26(4), 630–651. https://doi-org.ezp.waldenulibrary.org/10.1108/IJOA-04-2017-1
How organizational culture and leadership style aﬀect employees’ performance of genders Bassem E. Maamari Department of Management Studies, Lebanese American University, Beirut, Lebanon, and Adel Saheb Adnan Kassar School of Business, Lebanese American University, Beirut, Lebanon Abstract Purpose– This paper aims to highlight the importance of organizational culture on the leader’s style and the effect of the chosen leadership style on the team’s performance. It surveys a strata of leaders from the Middle East in the current turbulent environment. Design/methodology/approach– A research paper based on a quantitative data collection in the service sector from a large number of stratiﬁed sampledﬁrms and respondents. Findings– The cross-sectional data from 40 service companies reveal some interesting results highlighting the interrelationships between these three variables. Theﬁndings suggest that managers need to build on this conceptﬁnding in providing further training and development of employees’skills in addition to an organizational culture of acceptance, adaptation and diversity. Research limitations/implications– Electing to use a speciﬁc set of criteria in sampling might have resulted in eliminating a meaningful different direction in the results. Moreover, the size of the survey tool limited the number of variables to test with the study. Practical implications– A number of implications are worthy of mention. First, devising reward programmes that are fairly attractive to both genders independently of each other should be a managerial priority, along with the creation and development of strong organizational cultures. Social implications– Finally, a coupled performance and organizational culture of efﬁciency at the workplace, if not paralleled with a proper leadership style that fosters positive results, will only result in partial improvements in the big organizational picture, resulting in the persistence of the old prejudice and discrimination along the gender and age lines. Originality/value– The study examines a suggested model in a new environment that is known to be deeply rooted in old-fashioned paternalistic managerial behaviour, and where change, if occurring, is extremely slow to introduce. KeywordsPerformance, Leadership style, Organizational culture, Gender Paper typeResearch paper 1. Introduction The contemporary integration of female workers into the Lebanese workplace has pulled the attention of the organizations towards the need of amendment to embrace this evolution.
Due to the importance of employees’ﬁt to their commitment towards the organization ( Behery and Paton, 2008), organizational culture is established from the inception phase in the life of any organization. It develops over time to reach a level of pervasiveness and deployment, making it one of the most challenging factors to change at a later point. With IJOA 26,4 630 Received 10 April 2017 Revised 11 September 2017 20 October 2017 Accepted 22 October 2017 International Journal of Organizational Analysis Vol. 26 No. 4, 2018pp. 630-651 © Emerald Publishing Limited 1934-8835 DOI10.1108/IJOA-04-2017-1151 The current issue and full text archive of this journal is available on Emerald Insight at:
www.emeraldinsight.com/1934-8835.htm the advent multi-fold increased inﬂux of women in the twentieth century to the workforce (Igbaria and Baroudi, 1995), the importance of the culture lies in its setting the framework for a number of variables in the organization, including performance standards, attitudes (efﬁciency and/or effectiveness) and norms of behaviour. These in turn limit the contribution of the lower level leaders and managers that attempt to apply randomly different styles of leadership, whether transactional or transformational, to this setting where the norms are already pre-set. Therefore, this study is seeking to investigate the existence of statistically signiﬁcant effect of organizational culture on performance of both genders and whether leadership style can or does mediate this relationship. The organizational culture presents by itself as both an organizational strength as well as a barrier to development. Its effect may vary between improving efﬁciency and performance and hindering the workﬂow processes. Whereas leadership sets the rules of the game of how employees relate to each other and to managers, its outcomes provide value to theﬁrm in terms of commitment, loyalty and dedication of the team members towards their colleagues, respective teams and their leaders. In this organizational setting, in a context where research concerning consequence and signiﬁcance of the organizational culture and leadership style on performance is extremely limited in Lebanon, testing the proposed model earns a higher interest in the managerial circles.
This manuscript is organized into four sections, namely, a review of the available scholarly literature, followed by the methods used in the study, then the results and their analysis to draw some managerial implications and conclusions.
2. Literature review Dwelling into the managerial world, and seeing the importance that operational teams dedicate to performance and the ensuing outcomes, clears the picture for researchers. The compression of operating costs in a globalized business environment where theﬁrm seeks to satisfy an ever-changing demand within a highly competitive market, forces the today’s organizations to overlook certain factors. Among these are the effects of organizational culture and leadership style on performance. The following presents a glance at the scholarly literature on the topics at hand, beginning by organizational culture, followed by leadership style then performance and the relationship between these factors.
2.1 Organizational culture Organizational culture or corporate culture is the set of values, beliefs and way of doing things in an organization. It deﬁnes the ambiance in which an employee is working and how he/she should behave to achieve his/her duties ( Mgbere, 2009), and his/her awareness of what is occurring in the organizational environment (Hofstede, 2011). It has also an impact on decision-making, level of authority and agency theory in organizations (Childeet al., 2016). Therefore, this aspect of the organization has become widely important and interesting to measure its abilities to innovate and adapt to the change of the cultures and how it affects its performance (Mgbere, 2009). The national and societal culture of the country affects organizational culture (Hofstede, 2011). According to Hofstede’s and Trompeneaars’Model, there are measurable dimensions for the society’s culture that can inﬂuence and shape individuals’values and norms who are the founders, employees and customers of the organizations. Values represent the corner stone and the supreme part of organizational culture (Hogan and Coote, 2014). But at the gender level, this performance is reported to vary largely, despite the many attempts to provide for equal opportunity. The explanation could be referred to the discriminatory prevailing attitude at the human capital level (Glass and Cook, 2016;Sidani, 2016;Salloumet al., 2016;Tlaiss and Kauser, 2011; Employees’ performance of genders 631 Gneezyet al.,2003). As a result, women still“face a‘glass ceiling’that prevents them from reaching top level management”(Salloumet al.,2016;Igbaria and Baroudi, 1995, p. 109).
Women constitute a resource, which is not efﬁciently used in organizations, and it is time to decide how best to organize this human resource. As the corporate culture constitutes a boundary for both the employee and the manager that control and limit their behaviours, the performance of the employee or the manager is affected by the extent to which they are integrated, and to extent to which theyﬁt within that organization’s culture (Lysons, 2000).
The employees’success within corporations is measured by their capability to adjust their behaviour toﬁt in the corporate culture and is becoming an important determinant of the employee’s satisfaction and productivity (Davis and Landa, 2000).Mgbere (2009)reports that the relationship between the corporate culture and the performance is positive. For one, the performance of a company is highly related to the company’s culture if it has a strong culture that is well integrated and based on strong beliefs and values (Deal and Kennedy, 1983;Denison, 1990;Kotter and Heskett, 1992), and for two, employees’job satisfaction is related to their perception of the ownﬁt with the organizational culture (Behery and Paton, 2008). But when it comes to study the effect of corporate culture on economic performance, Mgbere (2009)citedSiehl and Martin (1990)who report a modest positive relationship between these two factors. Moreover,Behery and Paton (2008)report a positive relation between the organizational culture and the job satisfaction, resulting in boosted employee performance. Furthermore, their study took place in Dubai (non-Westernized country) to prove that this Westernized hypothesis is also valid in a non-Westernized environment, thus concluding that organizational culture affects organizational and individual performance. In addition, Bakaret al.(2008)concluded that there are four types of corporate cultures.
They are competitive culture, entrepreneurial culture, bureaucratic culture and consensual culture. They argued that both the entrepreneurial culture and the consensual culture achieve the highest correlations between the other cultures. However, only entrepreneurial cultures show a statistical signiﬁcance on the overall job performance. Thus, an organization that strives to improve its employee’s job performance should inculcate innovative culture that creates an exciting and dynamic environment in which entrepreneurial and ambitious people thrive in this environment. Furthermore, Yiing and Bin Ahmad (2009)cited in their article that the organizational culture plays an important role in generating commitment and enhancing performance (Dubeyet al.,2017;Lok and Crawford, 2001;Deal and Kennedy, 1983;Peterset al., 1982), and he posed some studies that show a strong positive relationship between the supportive and innovative cultures and the job satisfaction and commitment, while the bureaucratic culture had a negative relationship with the job satisfaction and commitment (Silverthorne, 2004; Abdul Rashidet al.,2003;Brewer and Clippard, 2002;Lok and Crawford, 2001;Londonet al., 1999;Krauszet al.,1995;Brewer and Weber, 1994;Brewer, 1993;Trice and Beyer, 1993; Kratina, 1990;Wallach, 1983).
Pool (2000)argued how some work environments cause stress for its employees.
Executives may form high levels of stress in carrying out requirements. This is why they must be considerate when distributing work assignments within the prevalent organizational culture. In addition, accelerating changes mustﬁt the organization’s culture to reach successful business goals strategically. This, keeping in mind that organizational culture is affected by gender predisposition (Madsenet al.,2005;Goulet and Singh, 2002;Kirchmeyer, 1995) and incompatible values or interests of individuals leads to organizational conﬂict ending up with the accommodation of the weakest party.Joiner (2001)also discussed job- related stress in her article. It is deﬁned as an interactive imbalance between the individual and the individual’s work environment (Frenchet al.,1974). From this, we conclude the IJOA 26,4 632 necessity of a top-down organizational evolutionary change starting with a new organizational culture that commits all members equally to its body resulting in a win–win strategy.
2.2 Leadership style Leading is the art of communicating a clear vision and empowering employees towards organizational goals. Mgbere (2009)deﬁnes leadership as the ability to work with a group of people (employees) to achieve a goal (Northouse, 2015;Fry, 2003; Robbins and Coulter, 2001;Lussier, 1990). He also points to the fact that the leadership style affects performance (Sauer, 2011;Fry, 2003;Bycioet al., 1995;Bass and Avolio, 1990). Although “no gender differences in leadership style are found”(Engenet al.,2001, p. 581), in today’s environment where cultures are changing rapidly due to globalization, leaders play a deﬁnitive role in helping the corporate entity to adapt to this new changing culture (Fiedler, 1996;Hennessey, 1998). Culture is expressed either implicitly through communicating information or explicitly through rules and regulations (Hofstede, 2011).
While there are reports that males score high on individualism and masculinity, whereas females score high on power distance and long-term orientation (Alanezi and Alansari, 2016), evidence from Europe shows that women’s delineation and critical thinking boosts creativity and widens the panorama of decision-making (Christiansenet al.,2016), leaving a strong impact on female directors’performance in China (Liuet al.,2014). According to Chen (2004), recent organizational crises have emphasized the need for leadership and personal commitment, which has become more critical for organizational success (Selznick, 2011), irrespective of gender stereotyping (Engenet al.,2001), while the leaders’valuation is in itself highly gender stereotyped (Eaglyet al.,1992). In addition, women are still underrepresented and less likely to be promoted for top leadership positions (Glass and Cook, 2016;Salloumet al., 2016). Many models of leadership are incorporated in leadership theories and even if males in the MENA region have monopolized these models, a further look among other developed societies might anticipate in resizing the number of female leaders in the Arab countries (Sidaniet al., 2015). Sidani (2016)sees that the change can occur gradually whenever cultural and institutional factors welcome this fair participation and unprejudiced opportunities for working women. The study of leadership has been developed over the past 100 years ( Bass, 2000). The impact of leadership style on corporate culture and its challenges to adapt to any new culture highlights the importance of having a more dynamic understanding for the role of organizational leaders and culture in ensuring the organization’s present and future success (Ehrhartet al.,2013;Mgbere, 2009). Furthermore, Cuong and Swierczek (2008)report that leadership competencies consist of eight skills, namely, peer, leadership, conﬂict resolution, information processing, unstructured decision-making, resource allocation, entrepreneurial and introspection. From the motivation-based leadership theories emerged transformational leadership ( Lidenet al.,2014;Yukl, 1997), transactional leadership (Piccoloet al., 2012;Bass and Avolio, 1994), path-goal leadership (Fry, 2003; House, 1996; House and Mitchell, 1974) and charismatic leadership (Fry, 2003; Conger and Kanungo, 1998; Shamiret al., 1993; House and Howell, 1992; House, 1977). Transformational leadership on one hand is deﬁned in terms of the leader’s effect on followers, where employees feel trust, admiration, loyalty and respect towards the leader (Lidenet al.,2014;Yukl, 1997). Transactional leadership, on the other hand, emphasizes on the exchange or transaction that takes place between colleagues and leaders, and leaders and followers (Bass and Avolio, 1994;Piccoloet al.,2012). Path goal Employees’ performance of genders 633 leadership motivates employees by selecting the appropriate behaviour for each situation (supportive, participative or achievement-oriented) and providing all the employees needs along their path towards the goal (Fry, 2003; House, 1996; House and Mitchell, 1974). Finally, charismatic leadership requires certain talents such as the ability to inﬂuence and inspire others towards ideological goals and moral values where followers are willing to mitigate with these values and to go beyond their duties (Fry, 2003; Conger and Kanungo, 1998; Shamiret al., 1993; House and Howell, 1992; House, 1977).
Mgbere (2009)notes the complexity of the research on the relationship between the corporate culture, leadership style and corporate performance due to the multiplicity of cultures to which the organization’s members belong, and this situation makes the role of the leader harder and more difﬁcult to deﬁne and to relate it directly to the corporate performance (Brownet al.,2013). Davis and Landa (2000-2001) support the existence of a relationship between the leadership style and performance, and they refer in their article to Duxbury and Higgins (1991)research that shows the impact of a supervisor who follows the controlling style which results in undermining the employees’effectiveness, as opposed to the impact of a supervisor who follows the supportive style and which results in developing more effective employees. To positively use the leader’s position and its impact on employees’performance, the leader in theﬁrst place shouldﬁt into the organization’s culture, and his leading style should be adequate to the circumstances of the organization as well as to its culture. This combination will empower the positive relationship between the leadership style and the performance (Fullan, 2011;Lee, 2008;Yiing and Bin Ahmad, 2009).
The gender inequality in the number of female upper-level manager is thus attributed to “gender connotations”(Cooper Jackson, 2001) and to the lack of appropriate style of leadership at the female leaders (Engenet al., 2001). Thereby,“the more instrumental, task oriented, autocratic styles are therefore often referred to as masculine leadership styles and the interpersonal-oriented, charismatic, and democratic styles as feminine leadership styles” (Engenet al., 2001, p. 582). But whether these affect performance remains to investigate.
2.3 Performance Employee performance can be deﬁned as the activities that are formally recognized as part of the job and that contribute to the organization’s goals ( Borman and Motowidlo, 1997).
There are two dimensions of performance: an action dimension known as the behavioural aspect and an outcome dimension known as the performance aspect (Roe, 1999;Campbell et al.,1993;Campbellet al., 1990). In this paper, the behavioural aspect of performance is considered to be consistent with the work situation and job speciﬁcations, which then turns into the means of achieving organizational goals and objectives, that is, the outcome dimension or the performance aspect. Employee performance is the building block of an organization, as the progress of an organization is a collective effort of all its members ( Isaac Mwita, 2000). The main purpose of any organization is to maximize productivity, decrease employee turnover and increase employee retention (Mowdayet al., 2013). Therefore, to reach organization’s goals, managers need to focus on factors that affect the performance of employees at the workplace and hence increase the productivity (McColl-Kennedy and Anderson, 2002). At the beginning of their career, males and females show no remarkabledisparity in the level of their performance; however, with time, gender differences become visible (Van Den Besselaar and Sanström, 2016; Tlaiss and Kauser, 2011) when uncontrolled situations such us discrimination (Mills, 2017), constricted collaboration, motherhood and cramped conditions emerge (Larivièreet al.,2011).
Yet, gender diversity increases theﬁnancial performance of organizations (Christiansenet al., 2016). Consequently, the factors that lay the foundation for high performance must be analysed IJOA 26,4 634 and addressed meticulously by the organizationsto ensure organizational success, including both main factors; organizational culture and leadership style.
2.4 Eﬀect of organizational culture on performance Early researchers believed that there is a relationship between organizational culture and organizational performance. Magee (2002)argues that as organizational culture is inherently connected to organizational practices (Rofcaninet al.,2017;Zainet al., 2009), it is manifested by the collaborative circumstances between the different units of the organization (Hofstede, 2011). Therefore, organizational performance relies greatly on organizational culture. The fact that attitudes are part of the organizational culture and part of the employees’ performance will straighten out the relation between organizational culture and performance. The relation between belief, participation and performance is associated by the organizational culture (Debusscheret al., 2017;Dubeyet al.,2017). According toTseng (2010), an adhocracy culture has a greater effect than clan and hierarchy culture on corporate performance because it creates a comfortable environment for creativity and innovation. According to Slocum and Hellriegel (2009), organizational culture can boost performance on a large scale, and the culture of an organization allows the employees to be acquainted with both theﬁrm’s history and current methods of operation (Awadh and Alyahya, 2013; Zainet al., 2009). Moreover,Kozlowski and Klein (2000)report that an organization is a consciously coordinated system where characteristics of individuals, groups and organizations interact with each other, and where the effective interaction among them highly depends on organizational culture that shapes the individual performance leading in most of cases, that high performers are more appreciated and promoted than low performers (Crosset al.,2000). Furthermore, the mutual beneﬁt relationship between an organization and its employees supports this idea, where weﬁnd that all organizations are thriving to recruit high performing individuals to meet the organizational objectives and achieve competitive advantages. Gender variance in performance result either from gender quality differences or gender bias (Van Den Besselaar and Sanström, 2016). Because most of higher positions and those related to authority and power are still more dedicated to men (Van Den Besselaar and Sanström, 2016), rigorous comparison of gender performance is not always viable (Abramoet al., 2013). Therefore, employees need supportive organizational cultures to promote both genders with similar opportunities (Van Den Brinket al.,2006) to help them reach individual and cumulative departmental objectives. Many researchers consider individual factors (i.e. ability and effort) to be of great importance to highlight the link betweenorganizational culture and employee performance ( Gardner and Schermerhorn, 2004;Schermerhorn and Nyaw, 1990).
According toFurnham and Gunter (1993), organizational culture is the internal integration and coordination between aﬁrm’s operations and its employees. Internal integration can be described as the societal interaction of new members with the existing ones, creating the boundaries of the organizational feelings of identity among staff and commitment to the organization. The shared system, which forms the basis of communication and mutual understanding in the organization, is created and supported by the culture, and if the organizational culture fails to fulﬁl these functions at a satisfactory level, the culture may have a signiﬁcant negative inﬂuence on the efﬁciency of the employees (Awadh and Alyahya, 2013;Furnham and Gunter, 1993). A strong organizational culture supports adaptation and develops the organization’s employee performance by motivating employees towards a shared goal and objective, although some scholars report a neutral effect ( Behery and Paton, 2008). Nevertheless, Employees’ performance of genders 635 coaching, equal opportunities, status, expectations (Kalhoffet al., 2011) and pay policy based on employee characteristics and performance, (Austenet al.,2013) enhance employee behaviour over the long run (Kalhoffet al.,2011). Finally, shaping and channelling employees’behaviour to that speciﬁc direction should be at the top of both operational and functional strategies (Daft, 2010). Although organizational culture has no direct impact on theﬁnancial performance (Yesil and Kaya, 2013), but recently evaluating the intangible assets such as employees, systems and culture became part of the balanced scorecard of companies that seeks competitive advantage in a dynamic environment (Awadh and Alyahya, 2013;Kaplan and Norton, 1996). Starbucks coffee company, with more than 2,500 worldwide stores, relates its success to employees’performance and believes that employees work best with customers when they are better treated (Flamholtz and Randle, 1998). A ﬁrm’s mission reﬂects its ultimate long-term objective, which is accomplished by conducting integrated operational and behavioural activities. Aﬁrm’s performance improves if it has a clear sense of purpose and commitment towards its mission. A successful and a well- performing organization deﬁnes its organizational goals as the report card of its forthcoming (long-term) future (Hamel and Prahalad, 1994;Mintzberg, 1987;Ohmae, 1982).
Chatmanet al.(1998)postulate that organizational culture has a considerable effect on work processes and outcomes. Moreover, organizational culture shapes the way employees operate and interact with each other in an organization, and affects their self-perceptions, post-task assessment and performance (Beyer, 1990). The cultural model comprises various norms, beliefs, values, rituals and symbols that govern the operating style of the people within a company. The corporate culture holds the workforce together and provides a direction for the company. The world is changing, and culture has to adjust accordingly (Awadh and Alyahya, 2013;Hofstede, 2011). In times of change, the biggest challenge for any organization may be to change its culture, as the employees are already accustomed to a certain way of doing their routines (Chatmanet al., 1998), and this brings us to the irreplaceable role of leadership along with the rehabilitation of organizational culture (Awadh and Alyahya, 2013). Thus, the need to study where the relationship stands and whether it is gender differentiated.
2.5 The eﬀect of leadership on performance Leadership is a process based on social inﬂuence in which the leader strives for the voluntary participation of subordinates toachieve organizational goals. A leader is a person who motivates others to act, so as to carry out speciﬁed objectives. According to Maslow’s theory, motivation depends on the hierarchy of needs of individuals regardless of their gender. Organizations need effective leaders, leaders who understand the convolutions of the rapidly changing global environment ( Kim and Yoon, 2015; Finkelstein and Hambrick, 1996). A structured task and a leader with a good relationship with the employees are the perfect combination to generate high effectiveness on the part of the employees (Boehmet al., 2015). Leadership styles could be divided into four main types: autocratic, democratic,laissez- faireand human relations. An autocratic leader (dictator) is a leader who has the notion of controlling all decisions, often outlining the means of how to achieve targets. Such a leader uses fear and control to lead employees. Democratic leaders on the other hand would involve group members in decision-making activities. Thelaissez-faireapproach encourages independence of followers and rarely contributes to the processes that generate output.
Finally, a human relations leader emphasizes on people more than he emphasizes on performance ( Skakonet al., 2010;Misumi and Peterson, 1985;Gastil, 1994). IJOA 26,4 636 Several studies examined the effect of the different leadership styles on employee performance. ( Chen, 2004;Fry, (2003). Motivation enhances performance (Fry, (2003).
Therefore, leader’s gender plays a signiﬁcant role inﬂuctuating performance, as their capability of interaction and motivation differs (AlAnezi and Alansari, 2016;Riceet al., 1979). Moreover,Kaur (1993)reports that most Indian managers prefer the autocratic style, and that employees in the observed organizations are highly committed to their organizations and are highly satisﬁed with their jobs, and their performance is high (Kaur, 1993). A number of studies carried out in the Arab world suggest that leadership in the Arab cultures fosters consultative and participative tendencies (Alnuaimi, 2013).
According to this study, the inﬂuence of Islamic and tribal values and beliefs on leadership cannot be denied, as both Islamic and tribal laws underpin consultation in all aspects of life (Boussif, 2010). Based on gender’s performance in working and conﬂicts conditions, leadership competencies such as relational and interpersonal skills are more likely related to the quality of female leaders, whereas strategic planning and decision-making are mainly male’s leadership skills (Almakiet al., 2016). However, the various positions held by outstanding female leaders (Irene Rosenfeld,IndraK.Nooyi, Drew Gilpin Faust, etc.) can change the equation and consider culture the key reason holding back women from leadership positions. Moreover, scholars highlight the relationship between leadership and employee job performance within an organization.
While management by fear can create tensions that might produce the desired result in the short term, it is unlikely that success willbe sustained, whereas leaders who create a trusting open environment where information is shared create an organization that can rise to any challenge (Jing and Avery, 2008). A particular style of leadership may not always motivate good performance. Varying the leadership styles according to the different situations is recommended, and each leader must be able to know when to exhibit a particular approach and with whom. No one-leadership style is ideal for every situation; a leader may have knowledge and skills to act effectively in one situation but may not emerge as effective in another ( Golemanet al., 2013). Employees consider transformational leadership style part of an innovative culture that provides the suitable climate for creativity (Kim and Yoon, 2015) and boosts performance (Boehmet al., 2015). From the employees’perspective, what they see leader’s behaviour builds their perception of the person-leader, and on this perception, they build their own feedback, cooperation level and adjustment to the work environment and its demands. The essence is not whether one speciﬁc leadership style is better to be applied than the others, but rather to test whether the way the leader deals with the employees (style) reﬂects in their performance of their work tasks, taking into account the individual preferences of leadership styles. As a result of the above discussion of the reviewed literature, a gap is identiﬁed in the body of knowledge, where the relationship between organizational culture and employees’ performance could be both direct and indirect (as mediated by leadership style). Where most of the reported studies report one relationship only between organizational culture and employees’performance, or on between leadership style and performance, this paper investigates both relationship simultaneously, as both direct, and as mediated by leadership style. To address this gap, the researchers are suggesting the following hypotheses to test (Figure 1 ): H1. Organizational culture positively affects employees’performance.
H2. Leadership style mediates the relationship between organizational culture and employees’performance. Employees’ performance of genders 637 3. Methodology This study’s philosophy follows the positivist theory which underlines observational information and investigational work to identify noticeable regularities. It follows the deductive approach to research aiming at postulating hypotheses and testing them for the purpose of amending or modifying available theories. Moreover, the study uses a survey as a tool popular among business researchers and respondents as well, to collect data about the respondents a leadership style, and relies on data from the operational records of the companies surveyed in assessing employees’performance. This strategy allows for a faster and cheaper data collection process than other strategies, while permitting the selection of the sample (random or other) to measure for a set number of variables while controlling for others. The researchers opted for the use of the survey technique, choosing a quantitative approach for their cross-sectional study. The collected data is then analysed for the purpose of identifying results, or trends in the observed sample ( Saunderset al.,2009). For the purpose of this study, a questionnaire is prepared in four sections. Theﬁrst comprises of four demographic questions aimed at capturing the respondents’gender, age, education and tenure, where all the targeted sample is of employees in the service sector. To avoid the issue of predictive validity, the researchers used scales that are already tested and validated. The second part is composed of 12 measure items that focus on organizational culture, and borrowed from a commonly used survey and adapted for the purpose of this study (http://implementer.com/implementer/newtools/ orgcultquest.html). The third part of the questionnaire is made up of six questions on performance and used to compare results with actual operational data, and the last part is composed of ten questions taken from the Humming Network’s questionnaire for performance assessment ( http://humming.net.au/ questionnaire.pdf ). Moreover, and as the purpose of the study is to assess the impact of organizational culture (if any) on both leadership style and performance, as well as the effect of leadership style on performance, the leadership style questionnaire targeted the population of employees in the service sector, as applied in theﬁeld of Lebanon using a questionnaire developed by Palgrave ( www.palgrave.com/uploadedFiles/Leadership_Style.
pdf ) and published byNorthouse (2015).
The survey tool was piloted using a small hard copy of the questionnaire on a group of 37 employees working in two different serviceﬁrms to assert easy of understanding, language simplicity and clarity of job at hand. For the sampling process, the researchers analysed the population at hand. The total population is estimated to be 110,000 employees. The researchers visited 72ﬁrms in total and distributed a total of 550 questionnaires through email lists received from a network of 40 medium-sized service companies whose top management accepted to participate in the study. Then the researchers visited theseﬁrms again, met with the Human Resources (HR) managers to put in place the data collection Figure 1.
Suggested model IJOA 26,4 638 process, allowing for conﬁdentiality and anonymity of the data collected, whereby the respondents received an email directly from the researchers and responded on-line. In selecting the sample, the researchers put a number of criteria. First, the respondent needed to have a personal email at work. Second, the respondent should have an adequate mastery of the English language to be able toﬁll the questionnaire. Finally, for privacy and adequacy of data collection, the respondents needed to have access to the internet from their own private workstation. The respondents received an email directly from the researchers and responded anonymously online or through printing their responses and depositing them in unmarked envelops in the HR from where the researchers collected them in person.
The received 407 responses from the 40ﬁrms in different geographic locations span a wide coverage of the country (3.7%, of total population). Out of the received responses, a few proved to be missing data; thus, theﬁnal number of usable responses was 400.
The researchers entered the data to SPSS 22 to facilitate data entry and data cleaning.
Then, a number of statistical tests were run on the data. Theﬁrst test was the CFA test run on the data of Parts 2, 3 and 4 of the questionnaire. The results show that the questionnaire is valid as is. Moreover, the KMO results were 0.911, 0.828 and 0.676, respectively, with Sig = 0.000 for all. Finally, the scale reliability is analysed through the Cronbach’s alpha test whose results are 0.842 for OC, 0.546 for leadership style and 0.843 for performance. Second, analysing the data, the researchers found that age group distribution of the respondents who voluntarily contributed to the study is mainly young. In fact, theﬁrst age group (aged 18-25) represents 51.0 per cent of the total sample, whereas 32.0 per cent are 26 to 35 years old, and 8.5 per cent from the group are 36 to 45 years old, 6.8 per cent are 46 to 55 years and only 1.8 per cent are older. This is in line with the population demographics in a country where the demographic distribution pyramid is wide-based. Second, the gender of the respondents is 207 males (51.7 per cent) and 193 females (48.3 per cent), which is close to the national gender distribution of 46.5 per cent males and 53.5 per cent females. Third, as for the educational level of the respondents, the sample is composed of a majorly educated group where 61.0 per cent hold a bachelor’s degree (BA/BS); 21.5 per cent hold a masters’ degree and 4.8 per cent hold higher level degrees, leaving only 5.3 per cent with high school education or less and 7.5 per cent of sophomore, baccalaureate or technical/vocational degrees. Finally, the tenure of the respondents as highlighted by the results received shows that the majority have less thanﬁve years of work experience with the current organization (59.0 per cent), 13.8 per cent have 6 to 10 years, 10.8 have 11 to 15 years, 8.3 per cent each have 16 to 20 and 21 years or more.
4. Results For analysing the respondents’replies, the data are used to run a correlation analysis using SPSS 22. The results reveal a number of interesting relationships. First, gender is positively weakly correlated with tenure, organizational culture and performance. This means that for females: tenure is longer (r= 0.258; Sig. = 0.000;p<0.01); organizational culture is more important (r= 0.103; Sig. = 0.000;p<0.05); and performance of females is higher (r= 0.258; Sig. = 0.000;p<0.05). Second, age is negatively weakly correlated with gender (r= 0.145; Sig. = 0.000;p<0.01) meaning that there are more young female employees in theseﬁrms than there are males. Moreover, age is positively but weakly correlated with both performance (r= 0.138; Sig. = 0.006;p<0.01) and leadership style (r= 0.119; Sig. = 0.017; p<0.05), which shows that the older employees are more sensitive to the style of leadership applied in the organization, and respond with increased performance on the job. Third, tenure is positively weakly correlated with organizational culture (r= 0.133; Sig. = 0.008; p<0.01), performance (r = 0.176; Sig. = 0.000;p<0.01) and leadership style (r= 0.154; Employees’ performance of genders 639 Sig = 0.002;p<0.01). Fourth, organizational culture is strongly positively correlated to performance (r= 0.736; Sig. = 0.000;p<0.01) but very weakly to leadership style (r= 0.086; Sig. = 0.087;p<0.05). Finally, performance is weakly positively correlated to leadership style (r= 0.206; Sig. = 0.000;p<0.01).
Furthermore, a regression analysis was run to identify the explanatory power of the different variables of the suggested model. Using SPSS 22, the postulated relationships are tested independently (Figure 2 ), then using the“Enter”function, the model was tested. The results show that organizational culture does affect employees’performance (R 2= 0.540; Sig. = 0.000), allowing us to accept theH1. When leadership style is“Entered”into the regression, adjustedR 2increases slightly (2 per cent) (fromR 2= 0.540 to 0.560, with Sig. = 0.000). This allows us to accept ourH2in general. The formula for the straight line equation is as follows: F PerformanceðÞ ¼0:445 ðÞ Organizational Cultureþ0:157 ðÞ Leadership Style 3:853 Regression analysis is also used, using the Process Macros technique and Hayes, to investigate the hypothesis that leadership style mediates the effect of organizational culture on employees’performance (Appendix). Results indicate that organizational culture is not a signiﬁcant predictor leadership style, b = 0.0483; SE = 0.0282;p= 0.0871, and that leadership style is a signiﬁcant predictor of employees’performance, b = 0.1571***; SE = 0.0364. These results do not fully support the mediation hypothesis, as organizational culture is still a signiﬁcant predictor of employees’performance after controlling for the mediator leadership style, b = 0.4455***; SE = 0.0205. Approximately, 2 per cent of the variation in the dependent variable (employees’performance) is accounted for by the predictor (R 2= 0.0218). The indirect effect is tested using a bootstrap estimation approach with 400 samples. These results indicate the indirect coefﬁcient is not signiﬁcant, b = 0.0759; SE = 0.0058, 95 per cent CI = 0.0013 0.0219. Employees’performance is associated with approximately 0.168 points higher employees performance scores as mediated by Leadership Style.
Moreover, to analyse for gender-related variance in performance, the researchers ran two tests. First, a hierarchical multiple regression and, second, a correlations and linear regression analysis after performing a data split. First, the hierarchical multiple regression is used with the predictor independent variable (organizational culture) as reported by Behery and Paton (2008),Lok and Crawford (2001),Deal and Kennedy (1983)andPeters et al.(1982). Leadership is entered as a“Next”variable and performance as a dependent.
Moreover, the demographic variable“Gender”is also entered as a“Net”variable to test what Madsenet al.(2005),Goulet and Singh (2002)and Kirchmeyer (1995) report to be a predisposition effect. The results of the show that gender’s effect on the variability of the Figure 2.
Regression analysis results R = 0.736 R2 = 0.541 R = 0.086 R2 = 0.007 Sig. = 0.087 Leadership style Organiza onal culture R = 0.206 R2 = 0.400 Performance Sig. = 0.000Sig. = 0.000 IJOA 26,4 640 results is insigniﬁcant (R 2= 0.000; Sig. = 0.816); whereas organizational culture explains 54.2 per cent (R 2= 0.542; Sig. = 0.000) and leadership style improved variability of the independent variable by 2 to 56.2 per cent (R 2= 0.562; Sig. = 0.000). Second, the results of the correlations’test clearly show the existence of gendered variances in perceptions and employees’beliefs (Tables IandII). In addition to the demographic variables’correlation relationships with the different factors under consideration, OC is highly correlated to performance for both genders at slightly different levels (R 2 Male = 0.774; Sig. = 0.000;p< 0.01;R 2 Female = 0.700; Sig. = 0.000;p<0.01), the same applies to the correlation between OC and leadership style (R 2 Male = 0.039; Sig. = 0.576;R 2 Female = 0.132; Sig. = 0.06); and performance and leadership style (R 2 Male = 0.151; Sig. = 0.029;p<0.01;R 2 Female = 0.257; Sig. = 0.000;p<0.01). Moreover, the regression results of the testing of the model with data split by gender resulted in slight variations in the statistical outcome (Figures 3 and 4) and the following two different formulas of the straight line. Table I.
Correlation results by gender Correlation of variablesMale Female R 2 SignificanceR 2 Significance Age and tenure 0.646** 0.000 0.441** 0.000 Age and organizational citizenship 0.015 0.836 0.208** 0.004 Age and performance 0.040 0.572 0.287** 0.000 Age and leadership style 0.130 0.061 0.106 0.141 Education and tenure 0.177* 0.011 0.038 0.604 Education and performance 0.0 08 0.911 0.212** 0.003 Tenure and organizational citizenship 0.006 0.936 0.309** 0.000 Tenure and performance 0.055 0.435 0.335** 0.000 Tenure and leadership style 0.072 0.305 0.258** 0.000 Tenure and democratic leadership 0.058 0.407 0.152** 0.035 Tenure and autocratic leadership 0.049 0.480 0.252** 0.000 Organizational citizenship and performance 0.774** 0.000 0.700** 0.000 Organizational citizenship and leadership style 0.039 0.576 0.132 0.068 Performance and leadership style 0.151* 0.029 0.257** 0.000 Notes: *p<0.05; **p<0.01 Table II.
Regression results by gender RegressionRR 2 Significance SEF Male A OC and Perf 0.774 0.599 0.000 3.129 306.264 B OC and LS 0.039 0.002 0.576 4.523 0.314 C LS and Perf 0.151 0.023 0.029 4.884 4.814 C’Mediation 0.783 0.614 0.000 3.078 162.078 Female A OC and Perf 0.700 0.490 0.000 3.806 183.516 B OC and LS 0.132 0.017 0.068 4.837 3.379 C LS and Perf 0.257 0.066 0.000 5.151 13.462 C’Mediation 0.719 0.517 0.000 3.712 101.883 Employees’ performance of genders 641 FMale Performance ðÞ ¼0:466 ðÞ Organizational Culture þ0:133 ðÞ Leadership Style 3:774 F Female Performance ðÞ ¼0:425 ðÞ Organizational Culture þ0:183 ðÞ Leadership Style 3:936 The results show that male respondents emphasize more on OC, while their female counterparts stress more on leadership style, which allows us to acceptH2, that the relationship is gender affect.
5. Analysis The results of the data analysis reveal some important factors that should be further highlighted. First, analysing the results for gender, the relationship between gender and tenure shows that the female employees have a higher tendency to remain tenured on the job. Adding the result that the respondents’age is negatively correlated with gender, i.e.
there are more men older in age than women on the job, while also having more young women than men. This shows that the job market is accepting higher level of women in entry level jobs, whereas the majority of those tenured are men. Moreover, the relationship of gender with organizational culture clearly shows that the female employees embrace organizational culture to a higher extent and also perform better than their male counterparts. The reasons behind this female adaptation to the organizational culture might be socially implied, in a majorly paternalistic society, the manager is a maleﬁgure who plays orﬁts in the role/ﬁgure, enjoying a team of subordinating employees.
Second, the relationship between age and performance is positively correlated. As a rule of thumb, older employees should know the job better due to their learning curve and work Figure 4.
Regression analysis results–female respondents R = 0.700 R2 = 0.490 Sig. = 0.000 Sig. = 0.0 68 Leadership style Organiza onal culture R = 0.2 57 R2 = 0. 066 Sig. = 0.000 Performance R = 0.132 R2 = 0.017 Figure 3.
Regression analysis results–male respondents R = 0.151 R2 = 0.023 Sig. = 0.029 R = 0.774 R2 = 0.599 Sig. = 0.000 R = 0.039 R2 = 0.002Sig. = 0. 576 Leadership style Organiza onal culture Performance IJOA 26,4 642 experience, and this is also conﬁrmed by thisﬁeld exercise. However, what is an unexpected result is that older employees are exerting behaviours affected by the leadership style, whereas with expectations of maturity and wisdom, one would expect otherwise. Thus, senior employees are showing more resistance rather than adaptability to the leadership style used their respective leaders. This pushes the researchers to believe that managers need to build on this conceptualﬁnding in providing further training and development of employees’skills in addition to an organizational culture of acceptance, adaptation and diversity. This unexpected result that older employees are more affected by their superior’s leadership style than younger ones raises a question concerning work experience, social intelligence and work environment dynamics that need further investigation.
Third, the relationship between tenure and organizational culture traditionally follows the logic of longer in the company, better adapted to its culture and better serving as ambassador for its dissemination. Moreover, the positive correlation of tenure and performance at work is no news in the academicﬁeld. However, relating tenure to leadership style is arguable as managerial practices are rarely cited as a main or primary reason for tenure. Despite this, it is to the advantage of the leader to work with a more coherent and motivated team, as compared to a group of people who happened to be there. Managers should take into consideration this fact when introducing new leadership and provide the in- coming leader with a glimpse of historic information on the team for better readiness and adaptability on the leader’s side too.
Fourth, a stronger organizational culture of efﬁciency and accomplishments, where management seeks toﬁnd reasons to reward pre-approved standards, or behaviour leads to better compliance and adaptation to the peer stream of thought and behaviour. This allows new-coming staff to blend in faster and giving management the advantage of a homogeneous workforce or team that allows for higher work outputs. Moreover, the leadership style that encourages a culture of efﬁciency and accomplishmentﬁnds himself leading a more efﬁcient team that has a certain zeal towards challenging jobs, and that naturally ends up providing a higher performance level.
Fifth, a strong organizational culture typiﬁed by a speciﬁc leadership style will affect the performance of the many who do not champion this same style. The results of such beliefs may generate either a less motivated work behaviour with less performance and zeal or with employees reaching a plateau at which development and performance are out of the frame.
Finally, analysing for the gendered effect, the results vary slightly among the genders in different dimensions. The differences are attributed to general gender issues and behavioural conducts. The introduction of the leadership style for both males and females increasesﬁt of the model explaining the effect of OC on performance by approximately 9 per cent for men and 5 per cent for women.
6. Implications, limitations and conclusions This study is the result of a thorough scientiﬁc process and its results span across both academic and practical worlds. Therefore, in the following, we present a number of managerial implications, study limitations and suggestions for future research.
Building on theﬁeld study results reported here-above, a number of implications are worthy of mention. First, managers should devise coaching and reward programmes that are fairly attractive to both genders independently of each other. These programmes should take into consideration the gender and age factors to entice and motivate younger employees to perform better. Today’s young members of the work-teams are better networked, more informed and ambitious, probably have their different respective agendas and goals, that thereby need to be aligned with those of the organization using tools that are more Employees’ performance of genders 643 interactive,ﬂexible and customized. Second, the human resources function in an organization, along with its upper management levels, should put forth plans to strengthen their organizational culture’s desirable norms, values and beliefs, using different art-facts, stories, rituals, routines, events, meetings, newsletter, web sites or other means, while also aligning the organizational culture with the company’s vision, mission, values and long- term strategic goals. To do so, plans must be carefully developed and unfolded, using different targeted diffusion media and support programmes that can attain the speciﬁc gender/age groups of employees and potential hires. The result of a pervasive positive culture is reported in the literature to improve performance and tenure, and thus warrants the efforts and costs of such a plan to disseminate the culture to a higher pervasiveness level. Third, creating a strong culture in the organization through uniﬁed norms, values and beliefs, improves both employees’efﬁciency and effectiveness, communication and mutual understanding. Moreover, it helps mainstream those members of the team who are either accidental or from different cultural backgrounds, into a workable middle-point at which work-ﬂow and processes improve. This step inherently means on the other side of the coin, that the organization may shed or that some employees may elect to withdraw, creating an excessive resource leakage beyond the normal attrition rate, and that the human resources department should take into account in their recruitment plans and activities. Fourth, initiating, building and enhancing a strong culture within an organizational setting creates a sense of belonging, a feeling of similarity and unity among employees, in addition to the core belief of organizational ownership. This ownership feeling by itself generates a performance efﬁciency as employees begin to associate themselves with their organization, and their well-being and future career plans with those of the organization’s development and well- being. Therefore, compensation plans with proﬁt sharing or similar tools may prove to be efﬁcient. Fifth, a strong organizational culture would also mean a certain agreed-upon leadership style, that is probably cascaded down through the managerial ranks but also a style that everybody is used to adapt-to and adopt. In the long run, this will inhibit change, diversity and independent thinking, thereby generating managers who only think inside the box. Sixth, a coupled performance and organizational culture of efﬁciency at the workplace, if not paralleled with a proper leadership style that fosters positive results, will only result in partial improvements in the big picture (not exceeding 20.6 per cent as the study results show). Therefore, the leader selection process should look into different techniques and multi-layers of assessment, including more modern tools, such as psychometric tests, 360 degrees evaluation, in addition to better leadership preparation stages in training and skilling, in personality and role adaptability, decision-making processes and tools, as well as efﬁcient communication techniques, all of which may help facilitate the process and determine effective roles of genders in the organization.
Seventh, the study’s implications on the academic environment and body of knowledge relate to the change in the environment. In fact, and as witnessed in the literature, leadership style has been looked at for the past few decades as a major contributor in affecting employees’performance. However, revisiting the leadership style with a new model and a sampled new generation of dot.coms and stay-connected employees, the results of this study clearly show that this impact is out-grown by another trend that we suggest to name“The system trend”, among the new generation of white-collar employees. Thus, further research is suggested to investigate what factors do truly matter for this generation of young adults, leading to policy changes that are deﬁnitely warranted in light of the above results. The effect of this system acceptance on the performance of employees takes us back to the discussion of open and closed organizational systems and whether one is better than the other. IJOA 26,4 644 The study has a number of limitations. First, the sampling process and sample selection (convenience) took more effort from the researchers to avoid falling into sampling bias. The researchers surveyed employees of companies to which they have access or contact with a top manager authorityﬁgure or a managing partner, and as many refused to collaborate or take part in the study, this increased the cost in both time and money. Second, electing to use aspeciﬁc set of criteria in sampling might have resulted in eliminating a meaningful different direction in the results, but it helped preserve the generalization of the results. Third, the study only covers the service sectors, which raises questions on replicability of the study in other sectors and generalizability of results. Finally, the number of measure items in the questionnaire was large; therefore, the researchers’initial plan to also assess the personality trait of respective the respondent’s leader was not done. The reason for not extending the personality trait section is the researchers’fear that respondents might misunderstand the survey as being initiated by upper management to assess lower level managers.
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