Propose tests of reliability and validity for four of the measures

Part 1.

1. List at least 10 variables that will be measured in your research. No more than two of these should be sociodemographic indicators such as race or age. The inclusion of each variable should be justified in terms of theory or prior research that suggests it would be an appropriate independent or dependent variable or will have some relation to either of these.

2. Write a conceptual definition for each variable.      Whenever possible, this definition should come from the existing      literature, either a book you have read for a course or the research      literature that you have been searching. Ask two class members for      feedback on your definitions.

3. Develop      measurement operations for each variable. Several measures should be      single questions and indexes that were used in prior research. (Search the      web and the journal literature in Sociological Abstracts or PsycINFO.)      Make up a few questions and one index yourself. Ask classmates to answer      these questions and give you feedback on their clarity.

4. Propose tests of reliability and validity for four of the measures.

Part 2

1. Propose a sampling design that would be appropriate if you were to survey students on your campus only. Define the population, identify the sampling frame(s), and specify the elements and any other units at different stages. Indicate the exact procedure for selecting people to be included in the sample.

2. Propose a different sampling design for conducting your survey in a larger population, such as your city, your state, or the entire nation

Drug trafficking






Drug trafficking

Trafficking of drugs is a major problem in my area and my desire is to stop this activity by employing various strategies to ensure it has reduced. This research topic is important to address in my community as it will focus on the trafficking vice that has affected so many youths and identify those that are associated with these actions. Most of the government officials are engaged in this activity and through corruption, they use governments funds to conduct their business (Bagley & Rosen, 2015). Cartels in charge of trafficking have been supplied with weapons to safeguard their shipment and most of the youths are employed as guards. It is like the entire community is working for the cartels, especially in the labs to processes drugs.

Four questions to investigate

Who are the associates of drug trafficking?

This question is hard to answer as most of those doing this illegal business maintain a low profile. But according to a research that was done some years back, it was clear that some of the government officials are the main leaders for this activity and they relate with other cartels who are suspected to do drug trafficking. Everyone in the community is silent with the ongoing business for the sake of their employment in the labs (Bagley & Rosen, 2015). Basically, the illegal weapon access by cartels is by the help of corrupted government officials who are related to the business. Drug trafficking is done with ease as the police have been warned not to interfere with the shipping even if it is their role.

To what extend have their business reached?

Over the past years, drug trafficking has been in business and their shipment is now done outside the country. Growth in this business has also negatively impacted the airport security and by use of planes, shipping is carried out. Not forgetting shipping of drugs along the ocean, which takes a lot of time for the government to trace but no action is taken (Felson & Staff, 2017).

In what ways should the government intervene?

If all corrupted officials are removed from the government, then measures to stop these activities can be done. The government can implement advance methods such as investigations and detention for all those who are found doing drug trafficking. It should also visit those labs and shut them down even if they employ a lot of people in the community (Felson & Staff, 2017). The latter should be taken care of by allocations of employments to the people.

What should the government do to ensure no drug trafficking rule is maintained?

For this action to be maintained, the government should put up educative programs on the effects of drugs and alternatives works to do to avoid idleness. It should also put harsh treatments to all those who are planning to continue with this business. The two measures will impact the people positively and make them do legal business.

An interesting question to attempt in a qualitative and quantitative method is question number one. I will like to know deeply who are these participants of drug trafficking and why can’t they be stopped (Bagley & Rosen, 2015). Apart from that, I would also want to know their hideouts, how much they have invested in the country and who do they link up with in other countries. If my desire is meet, then I believe I can be able to change the illegal act, as the saying goes “one man can change the world”.


Bagley, B. M., & Rosen, J. D. (2015). Drug trafficking, organized crime, and violence in the Americas today. University Press of Florida.

Felson, R. B., & Staff, J. (2017). Committing economic crime for drug money. Crime & Delinquency63(4), 375-390.

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