it has open ended questions end lab reports about biology MUST BE ANSWERED CORRECTLY

Part A – (possible 80 points)

For Part A there are 4 parts you need to include – see numbered bullets below. You are to make a chart detailing the acquisition of traits from sponges to mammals. It may be done in the form of a table, a concept map, an outline, or a phylogenetic tree. The following traits must be included and defined, along with the evolutionary advantage(s) of each and the organism that first exhibited the trait.

1) List the traits in the order in which they appear from an evolutionary standpoint. You will start with multicellularity, then tissues, then radial symmetry and so on and so forth. (20 points)

2) Define all traits. (20 points)

3) Determine the organism the trait was first found in. Be sure to list only the organism the trait was FIRST found in. Hint! You can determine this by using the phylogenetic trees in your textbook. Starting on page 699 there is a phylogenetic tree with some of the traits. More mini-phylogenetic trees can be found on subsequent pages (702, 704, 705, etc and ending on page 880) (20 points)

4) Provide the evolutionary advantage of each trait. (20 points)

Amniotic eggs

Bilateral symmetry

Closed circulatory system

Coelom

Deuterostome

Dorsal tubular nerve cord

Endoskeleton

Endothermy

Exoskeleton

Feathers

Four chambered heart

Gills

Hair

Hollow bones

Jaws

Limbs

Lungs

Mammary glands

Multicellularity

Notochord

Open circulatory system

Jointed appendages

Pharyngeal pouch

Postanal tail

Psedocoelom

Radial symmetry

Scales

Segmentation

Swim bladder

Three chambered heart

Tissues

Two-chambered heart

Vertebral column

Follow the directions given on page 743 of your textbook to complete this Data Analysis Lab to investigate octopus learning. Follow the directions in the lab; then answer the following questions.

Octopuses learn from each other. In fact, they learn more quickly by watching other trained octopuses than they do by being trained by humans. Data from a study showing octopuses learning from each other raises the question of what octopuses learn from each other in their natural habitat.

1. How many octopuses selected the red ball or the white ball after observing the red ball being selected by other octopuses? (3 pts)

2. How many octopuses selected the red ball or the white ball after observing the white ball being selected? (3 pts)

3. Draw a conclusion about whether untrained octopuses can be trained by observation. (2 pts) Explain your conclusion. (2 pts)

Follow the directions given on page 806 of your textbook to complete this Data Analysis Lab to investigate Interpreting Scientific Illustrations. Follow the directions in the lab; then answer the following questions.

You have been using cladograms (evolutionary trees) throughout this course. The cladogram in the lab shows the phylogeny of echinoderms that evolved from ancestors with bilateral symmetry.

1. Identify which sea star is most closely related to sea star A. (3 pts)

2. Which sea star is the oldest? (3 pts)

3. Which group has the most diversity? C,G,N or L,K,M? (2 pts) Explain how you made your decision. (2 pts)

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