identify two or three elements you find interesting about their method of teaching psychopathology and explain why they are important to you.

1. According to the 2014 ACA code of ethics “Counselors respect the diversity of clients, trainees, and research participants and seek training in areas in which they are at risk of imposing their values onto clients, especially when the counselor’s values are inconsistent with the client’s goals or are discriminatory in nature.” Review Butman and Yarhouse’s article “Psychopathology Through the Eyes of Faith: Integrative Reflections for the Classroom and Beyond” and briefly describe their approach to teaching psychopathology. Identify two or three elements you find interesting about their method of teaching psychopathology and explain why they are important to you.

Use this for a reference and 1 or 2 more


Butman, R. E., & Yarhouse, M. (2014). Psychopathology through the eyes of faith: Integrative reflections for the classroom and beyond. Journal of Psychology & Theology, 42(1), 211-219. 

Psychopathology Through the Eyes of Faith: lotegr^؛!^e Reflections for

t^e Classroom and Beyond

Richard E. Batman

Wheaton College

Mark Yarhouse

Regent University

The Study ofthe Calamities ofthe Soul

We approach the study of psychopathology in these terms: “foe study of the calamities of the soul,” by which we mean that students are learning how to assess, treat, and prevent concerns that affect the whole person, the embodied soul. Stated differently, some- thing is lost in foe study o^ychopathology when we focus only on deviance, dysfunction, danger, or distress (i.e., foe traditional understanding of abnormal behav- ior). Rather, we see foe study o^ychopathology as the emotional and psychological stru^les of persons that affect all dimensions ofhuman beings.

This definition comes from the Greek word for psych (psukhe)y meaning breath or spirit, suggesting more than just the mind (but including mental pro- cesses), and pathology, su^esting foe scientific study of deviations from a healthy or normal state or condi- tion. Today, it is more common for the scientific study of psychopathology to focus on deviance, dysfunction, danger, and distress (i.e., the “4 Ds” in many contem- porary textbooks). These are certainly important for the conversation, but it seems most appropriate for a faith-based discussion to begin with a broader under- standing of the soul so that we can remind ourselves and our students that we are taking a holistic view of foe person in the service ofthe well-being of the soul.

The definition we have chosen—the study of foe calamities of the soul—has foe potential to offer greater humility and honesty, and a deeper respect for humanity, into our explorations in foe classroom and beyond. To foe traditional emphasis on the 4Ds, we

would Idee to add that ^ychopathology could also be seen as an expression of “disordered desires” or urges and longings that have gone awry.

The Assessment, Treatment and Prevention of M ental Illness

In our approach to teaching ^ychopathology, whether to an audience of undergraduate or graduate and professional-level students, we focus on three key domains: (a) the assessment, classification and diagno- sis of mental illness; (b) the effective treatment of psy- chopathology; and (c) exploring strategies for reducing the intensity, duration or frequency of disordered de- sire (prevention). We want our students to be able to describe the key symptoms (what isgoingon?)y to offer reasonable explanations for their etiology and mainte- nance (why is this happening?), to be able to explore available treatment options (what might be helpful

healing and growth}), and to offer creative and inمformed responses to risk reduction in the foture (what might be some preventive options?). Unfortunately, the traditional focus in many psychopathology courses is primarily on learning the Diagnostic and Statisti- cal Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM; APA, 2013) typology regarding foe assessment, classification and diagnosis of mental illness. For us, we strongly advo- cate the need for an “ethical” response (what are the implicationsfor our Christian worldview and lifestyle?). Consequently, we strive to balance solid course content (insight) with a sharp focus on relevant implications for se!want-^a^rioner-scholars (Jones & Butman, 2011).


1. According to the 2014 ACA code of ethics “Counselors respect the diversity of clients, trainees, and research participants and seek training in areas in which they are at risk of imposing their val 1



Historical and Contemporary Understanding ofthe Subject Area

In our previous work (Yarhouse, Butman, & McRay, 200s), we noted that there has been a segrega- rion of the soul that took place when the church ab- dicated its responsibilities in working holistically with the soul by having mental concerns addressed solely and exclusively by mental health professionals. There is a rich tradition ofpastoral care and spiritual formation that could deeply inform contemporary discussions. We see some developments in this area with greater emphasis on spiritual Direction today, even to foe ex- tent of specific degree programs. The positive psychol- ogy movement has also offered some helpful insights that compliment these developments. Indeed, psychol ogy, theology, and spiritual formation are all potential contributors to the dialogue (McMinn & Campbell, 2006). In other words, the study of the calamities of foe soul needs to be informed by science and reason (general revelation), scripture and theology (special revelation), foe authority and traditions ofthe church (spiritual formation), and important insights gained from foe narratives (experience) of both practitioners and clients. Finding effective ways to “integrate” these major sources of truth is foe heart ofthe matter for discernment in ^ychopathology (Jones & Butman, 2011).

This discussion comes at a rime in our history in which the mental health fields are in foe midst of sig- nificant turmoil about how best to understand our models of personality, psychopathology, and psycho- therapy. Recent conflicts about classifications systems (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual or DSM, Inter- national Classification of Disease or ICD, Psychody- namic Diagnostic Manual or PDM, and Personality Disorders Institute or PDI) are but one expression of these tensions (APA, 2013). Likewise, fierce de- bates about “best possible practices” {what treatment strategies work best with what types o f persons with what types ofproblems?) often leave the student bewil- dered by perceived chaos and confusion in the field. One of the key tasks ofthe instructor, then, is to help foe student to navigate foe “culture wars” between compering models. The wisdom, knowledge, and compassion so often evident in the history of pastoral care can help us explore the common factors ofeffec- rive treatment like hope, technique, relationships, and contextual or situational variables (McMinn & Camp- bell, 2006). A trend we have bofo noted amongst col- leagues that teach at faith-based institutions, is a grow- ing respect for this literature with each passingyear. As

Deuck and Reimer (2009) have nbserved, “Athens” (the academy) has much to learn from “Jerusalem” (the church).

Integrative k e r n e s in the Subject Area

The Problem ofHuman and Pain (the ^teodicy Debate)

Perhaps the most important theme that must be addressed at the start of a course in psychopathol- ogy is the theodicy debate. Our models of personal- ity, psychopathology, and psychotherapy should be deeply informed by the reality of human brokenness and sinfulness. The sheer statistical reality of the many expressions of serious mental illness (epidemiology) demands enormous sensitivity in this area, w h e n one considers the problems of anxiety and mood—or the problems of personality and psychosis—it would be hard to imagine that any individual in contemporary American society has not been directly or indirectly impacted by human pain and suffering. These themes can be incorporated directly into the content of the course or resources such asJohn Stackhouse’s Can God Be Trusted? or similar introductions to theodicy can be used as an opening reflection/devotional to facilitate discussion.

Specifically, we would recommend that course instructors courageously and carehdly address these concerns from the start of the course. Some form of “affect simulation” seems essential. We have found excellent resources in a wide variety of sources (e.g., articles, books, case studies, and internet) that help stu- dent develop greater awareness of the inner world of mental illness and emotional distress. Helping them to shift from focusing on the differences between them- selves and hurting persons—to exploring the common humanity of the human experience (empathy) seems absolutely critical. If this is not “front-loaded” in the course, the student runs the risk of adopting a more aloof and distant understanding of the reality of the critical mass ofhuman pain and suffering.

The Nature of?ersons (Theological Anthropology)

In our courses in psychopathology, we want our stu- dents to reflect and begin to initially develop a deeper understanding ofwhat it means to be a human being in all its complexities {what makespeople tick?). Specifi- cally, we encourage them to reflect on ways in which the doctrines of creation, the fall, resurrection, and glorification should inform our notions ofpersonhood (Jones & Butman, 2011). At foe most basic level, this

1. According to the 2014 ACA code of ethics “Counselors respect the diversity of clients, trainees, and research participants and seek training in areas in which they are at risk of imposing their val 2


should mean that every person is created in the image and likeness of God, therefore being of infinite worth and significance (Imago Dei). Likewise, each person is prone to brokenness, deceit, and sin (the utter impos- sibility of human perfection). Finally, there is hope for all persons because ofthe reality of the incarnation and resurrection. The study ofpsychopathology lends itself especially well to “fleshing out” our notions ofbroken- ness and the impact ofboth personal and collective sins of omission and commission (Yarhouse et al., 2005). But even in the midst o f incredible hrokenness, it does not lessen the worth and dignity of each person we en- counter. Practically speaking, this could mean that we have something to learn from each person in every en- counter—if only because they bear the image and like- ness ofGod. Our stance, then, should be one ofincred- ible humility and uncommon decency (Mouw, 2002). Flsewhere, we have tried to make a case for wholistic dualism—a recognition of the fundamental unity of foe mind and body (Jones & Butman, 2011). In short, our students need to understand that “we are not dis- embodied minds—or mindless bodies.” We are fear- fully and wonderfrrlly made in His Image—even in foe midst ofthe most serious expressions of mental illness.

The Nature ofProblems-in-Living (Psychopathology)

Further, we want our students to develop a deeper understanding ofthe etiology and maintenance ofpsy- chopathology. Mental illness is rarely an expression of a single causal factor. Most commonly, there is a com- plex interaction of primary, predisposing, précipitât- ing, and perpetuating factors—some of which are bio- logical, and others are psychosocial, sociocultural, or spiritual (Yarhouse et al., 2005). W e want our students to avoid foe sin of reductionism or what we refer to as “nofoing-but-ism” (foe assumption that the cause of ___ isnothingbut___ ).Thisisacommon,overly- simplistic response to foe concerns of our day, and our culture—and sadly many of our fourches—contrib- Utes to this single causal mindset. Because of who we are—and the way that God has made us—it can be es- pecially tempting to reduce choice and responsibility to the action of the individual without really respect- ing other important contributing factors. Rarely in the study of mental illness can we identify a single, primary cause that led to the etiology and maintenance of the disorder. Deep depression, for example, most often appears to be a synergistic combination of biological, psychosocial, and sociocultural factors. Respecting foe complexity of psychopathology has foe potential to

lead to a more integrative and wholistic response in terms of evaluating potential treatment options (Jones & Butman, 2011).

We want our students to be able to name at least several biologieal variables, several psychosocial vari- ables, and several sociocultural/spiritual variables that can potentially contribute to the etiology and mainte- nance of mental illness (we frequently request as many as seven of each to push students to consider complex contributing factors). This is not especially difficult, since scores ofvariables have been identified in each of those domains. We recommend that instructors adopt a stress-diathesis perspective, where mental illness is seen has a combination of internal and/or external stressors most often coupled with acquired (socializa- tion) or inherited (genetics) vulnerabilities.

For instance, if a psychologist is treating a het- erosexual couple in which the husband’s symptoms meet criteria for an erectile disorder, we want to con- sider possible predisposing factors in etiology. These could include lifestyle choices (e.g., stress associated with long work days, excessive community involve- ment, commitments that detract from time with one’s spouse, not prioritizing intimacy or shared pleasurable experience), as well as perpetuating factors in mainte- nance such as discouraging thoughts and catastroph- izing (e.g., I f l don’t perform tonighty my wife will leave me.). Respecting the complexity of etiology and main- tenance is a prerequisite for more deeply informed and effective treatment. We want our students as develop- ing servant-practitioner-scholars to be exemplars ofre- spectfol and deeply informed change agents.

We are especially concerned about ways in which compartmentalization and reducrionism seems to be gaining hold in our health care delivery system in this country. Clearly, the movement is towards psycho- pharmacological interventions—and away from more traditional human-centered therapeutic interventions. The obvious reality is that foe data clearly supports cognitive-behavioral and interpersonal therapies as been efficacious—and especially so when psychotropic medications are seen as an adjunct or aid to integrated and wholistic interventions (McMinn & Campbell, 2006). Treatments that “work” need to respect the complexity of etiology and maintenance—and in- tervene accordingly. Christian mental health profes- sionals must advocate and educate about foe need to respect the primacy of relationships in any healing endeavors. Responsible eclecticism needs to be col- laborarive and interdisciplinary or it runs the risk of offering “relief’ without lasting development or heal­

1. According to the 2014 ACA code of ethics “Counselors respect the diversity of clients, trainees, and research participants and seek training in areas in which they are at risk of imposing their val 3



ing. In a culture that is especially prone to a “quick fix,” or pragmatism, we need to reassert a deeper and more informed understanding oflasting change and healing (Jones & Butman^ 2011).

The Nature ofchange and Healing

As we turn our attention ro foe nature of change and healing, we are introducing our students to inter- venrion strategies and how to best understand them. In this context, we do well to speak to the common factors associated with change. These most certainly include hope (expectancy effects), interpersonal or relational variables between client and therapist, spe- cific treatment strategies, and a deep appreciation for relevant contextual, developmental, and situational variables (or what we think of as the world in which the client actually lives). Attention to foe known factors that predict resiliency and effective coping is likewise critically important (A?A, 2015). A clear consensus has also emerged about the importance of social sup- port systems as well as an individual’s sense of efficacy and purpose/meaning (?argament, 2013).

It often seems tempting ro our students to summa- rize the literature in such a way that it implies there is one best strategy for all individuals with the same type of problems. We support the use of evidence-based treatment manuals while recognizing that seasoned cli- nicians know that all treatment plans must be custom tailored for the individual. Again, fois seems to reflect core assumptions about health, happiness, or holiness that often do not reflect foe complexity ofhuman per- sons—or the complexities of disordered desires. Jones and Butman (2011) offer guidelines that might help reduce fois all roo predictable tendency.

Nature ofAssessment and classificationذ

We are most definitely in the midst of tremen- dous controversies about how best ro understand foe art and science of determining foe exact nature of foe ^oblems-in-living that trouble foe human soul. The DSM5 was released in May of 2013 (APA, 2013). At no time in our careers have we seen so much chaos, confusion, and tension with reference to how best decide about the specific nature of an individual’s ^oblems-in-living. Recent guides by Paris (2013) and Francis (2013)—and scores of webinars—have been offered to help academicians, clinicians, and research- ers to make sense of fois new typology. The official site of the American Psychiatric Association (www. is a good place to start—but one might also want to Google “DSM5 controversies” to get a

taste £٠٢how different professional associations and adv©caey groups aro ^sturing on these important matters, w h a t is less elear is how insuranee eompa- nies will respond—or how the current health initia- tives in this country will potentially impact adaptation and implementation o£the DSM5. Others are vitally concerned about what this means for graduate and professional training in both classroom and clinical settings.

We would recommend that the course instructor clearly present the pros and cons o£ current (and his- torical) classification systems (Yarhouse et al., 2005). In addition to the history of the DSM, instructors can discuss the ICD and foe PDM in this context. Helping our students understand the relevance of important psychometric concepts like norms and standardiza- tion—or reliability and validity. It seems more timely than ever to help our students learn how hard it can be to achieve good inter-rater reliability about what we see and what we hear. Helping foem to be moro care- fill observers—and more sacrificial listeners—is foun- dational. whether the DSM5 helps us to move in fois direction is something that we should explore in foe months and years ahead.

Assessment is an area in which we must acknowl- edge our dependence on an individual’s self-report and our direct observations. Consequently, we will never have all foe data we need ro make accurate and truthful assessments. As experienced clinicians have observed for decades, assessment is best seen as an on-going pro- cess of mutual discover and exploration. Again, there is a great need for epistemic hum ility-and it can be so tempting to act as if we have certainty even with hm- ited data.


As our students work through foe many expres- sions of foe calamities of foe soul, they often feel over- whelmed by foe pain and suffering they encounter through the assigned and recommended readings, or the material presented in foe classroom presentations. Coupled with their own personal encounters with the many forms of mental illness, a seme of demoral- ization and hopelessness can easily take hold in their consciousness.

We have found it especially helpfirl to offer nar- ratives of healing and recovery on a regular bases throughout the course. These are widely available on the internet or in teaching videos that often accom- pany adopted course textbooks. Ron Comer’s Ab– normal Psychology (2015) has made superb teaching

1. According to the 2014 ACA code of ethics “Counselors respect the diversity of clients, trainees, and research participants and seek training in areas in which they are at risk of imposing their val 4


vignettes to supplement his widely utilized undergrad- uate textbook. Over the years, we have collected scores of DVDs and videos that effectively demonstrate not only the signs and symptoms of mental illness, but also the many options available for effective treat- ment. Our students have told us for years that noth- ing quite matches the impact and power of narrative of individuals well into their recovery from serious men- tal illness. Kay Redfield Jamison or Frederick Froese, both psychologists that recovered from serious mood disorders, are but two notable examples (www.mental As was noted moro than a generation ago, “hope can’t be taught—it can only be borrowed from hopefirl persons” (Smedes, 1999).

When it comes to deeply impacting people, there seems ro be a growing consensus that authentic and credible role modeling is moro impactfid than direct teaching-and that disciplined reflection in difficult times can greatly strengthen an individual’s repertoire of coping skills (Garber, 1996). It is not surprising to learn, then, that counseling that stresses moro didactic interactional styles and is not interpersonally mediated can have limited impact on distressed individuals.

The Importance ofTechnique

As one carefully reviews the available studies on therapeutic outcomes, one should note that effective treatment frequently involves some combination of CBT, interpersonal therapies, and psychopharmaco- logical interventions, although empirical support for the efficacy of ^ychodynamic ^ychotherapy is also now more readily available (Shedler’s [2010] article on “The efficacy of psychodynamic ^y^therapy” published in the American Psychologist cites several empirical studies supporting the efficacy of psycho- dynamic ^ychotherapy in the treatment of various ^y^opathologies). Obviously, this varies somewhat from condition to condition, and person to person. It is beyond the scope of a course in psychopathology ro get students ro hone these techniques so they can be maximally impacted for hurting persons. Still, we can help our students learn to respect individual dif- ferences in demographic areas as varied as age, race/ ethnicity, culture, sexual orientation, gender identity, and abiht)^chievement. Likewise, we can help them to see the assets and liabilities of different research and evaluation strategies. Specifically, we need to help them to see ways in which single case studies or narratives can be helpful (but limited). Designing correlational, experimental, or ^^i-experimental strategies can be difficult and challenging ro implement (or interpret).

The on-going tensions go deep in our understanding with a specific individual (idiographic approach) or more broadly with groups of persons with common characteristics (nomothetic approach). The on-going challenge, as with so much in the mental health fields, is to see the ways in which research can moro deeply inform our attempts to be more effective in our ther- apeutic efforts {How do we know that what we do is effective?).

It does please us when our students learn ro ask, “Show me the data؛”—or—“Where is it written?” (biblical bases). Concerning the data, we do see a trend toward measuring treatment outcomes regardless of type of therapy. In any case, when those questions be- come the norm, we believe we are encouraging them to think more carefhlly, critically, and courageously.

The Primacy o f Relationships

Our best students quickly learn that social sup- port—or lack theroof-seems to be key factor in the etiology and maintenance of mental health or mental illness. Indeed, the research on this key variable is as robust as any conclusion that can be offered on the na- ture of effective coping with the demands of everyday living (Pargament, 2013).

We strive ro deepen their awareness of the pri- macy of relationship by offering a series of devotional thoughts and reflections that might be entitled “Com- munity 101” (Bilezikian, 1997). It is well worth the time in class to dialogue about the characteristic of good relationships and “vital friends” (McLemore, 2006). Undergraduate and graduate students alike of- ten strudle with the development ofboth identity for- mation and intimacy (Carber, 1996). w h a t seems very clear from the literature on emergent adulthood is that access ro mentors, role models, and exemplars, as well as peers than can balance affirmation with account- ability, is absolutely crucial for the formation of strong sense of self in healthy community. In is the context of those relationships that some of the best insights can be gained from a course in psychopathology. Towards that end, we have seen the benefits of moro collab- orative assignments and examinations ro be especially usefirl. Our students need to increasingly appreciate the power of collaborative learning experiences both within the classroom and beyond. We desire ro im- print them deeply with the habit oflearningkey truths in community and not just in isolated kind of ways. Simply put, “it takes people to make people sick-and people ro make people well” (Sorenson, 2004). And our teaching strategies need to reflect this mindset.

1. According to the 2014 ACA code of ethics “Counselors respect the diversity of clients, trainees, and research participants and seek training in areas in which they are at risk of imposing their val 5

Tie Importance of Contextual, Developmental and Situational V ariable

One of foe most challenging parts of effectively teafoin^sychopathology is getting our students to in- creasingly enter foe world ofhurting persons. On some level this can be done didactically through effective teaching, but foe better evidence available (see Bain, 2004) would surest that it needs to be done through direct exposure or through “immersion experiences.” With graduate students, practicum settings can be helpful to individuals striving to make the transition from the classroom to foe clinic. But nothing can sub- stitute for more prolonged exposure to environments or settings that are new and often somewhat threaten- ing to a student’s sense of safety, security, and stability. W e have seen repeatedly—and often powerfully—how perceptions of our students have changed radically when they have come alongside hurting persons on their own “turf.” Community-based organizations or volunteer ministry experiences can serve this function well if there is an opportunity to do disciplined reflec- tion on fois experience with a wise and seasoned clini- cian. The painful reality ofthe culture of poverty—or foe awfol reality of agression, abuse, or violence—can seldom be learned in a traditional classroom and only to a certain degree in a clinical context. Consequently, we strongly encourage our students to “take it to the streets” and “flesh out” their working models of per- sonality psychopathology and psychotherapy through direct contact and collaboration with hurting persons on their terms and in their space.

In light of some of our own immersion experiences in the global south and east, we have learned how im- portant it is to see ourselves as world citizens and global Christians. Beyond foe obvious ways in which these experiences can impact our constructs of health, hoh- ness, and happiness, it can help us see ways in which we impose “solutions” on complex human condi- rions. Learning to see problems-in-living through foe perspectives of indigenous healers and helpers can be enormously enlightening; these experiences most defi- nitely move students beyond their own comfort zones. It has been a tremendous privilege to have students at our respective institutions broaden and enlarge their perspectives and to see foe benefits of more localized attempts to deal with pain and suffering as well as learn anew what it means to “weep with those that weep” (cite).

As we have had to learn and relearn repeatedly, in rimes of distress it makes a lot of sense to flee to wor- ship, flee to fellowship, and flee to service. The truths

־of the field of psychopathology must always he incar nated in real 1ثةةapplications and interpersonally me- diated (Butman^ 2Q]2).

Suggestions for Improving Pedagogy

What are the Qualities ofEffective Teachers?

There is avast literature on the qualities ofeffective .)?وول ,teachers (Bain, 2004; Pascarelli & Terenzini W e are both at the points in our careers where we have had to select potential colleagues to join our team. Ob- viously, we have learned to make the often difficult judgments about character, competence, compassion, and convictions (Garber, 1 6 وو). w h a t is striking to us is that the literature on the long-term impact of effec- tive teachers seems to stress interactional r a t h e r than content variables irrespective of discipline or level of engagement (undergraduate versus graduate or pro- fessional). w h a t does “tease out,” however, seems to have more to do with how effective teachers actually teach—rather that what they teach. The variables that are most clearly supported by the empirical research are the instructor’s passion and enthusiasm for the material, his or her ability to make foe course content both real and relevant, and their ability to motivate foe students to learn the material for the right (intrinsic) reasons (Butman, 2012).

The good news is that the content of a psychopa- thology course has the potential to make a most signifi- cant impact on students. Awareness and ownership for the course content on the part of the instructor seem imperative. Indeed, how many courses in an educa- tional setting could be more real and relevant for foe audience-or more directly related to core faith-based assertions about personality, psychopathology, and .)ه 5 0 2 ,.psychotherapy? (Yarhouse et al

Even after teaching foe course content to both undergraduate and graduate students for almost 34 years (REB), 1seldom find it difficult to learn new in- sights—or see potential implications for a Christian worldview and lifestyle—on an almost daily basis. Indeed, foe course content can be so central to key as- pects ofthe human experience (e.g., “to know as we are known”—?aimer, 2005).

It is a good rime to be ta h in g psychopathology to a faith-based audience. There has been a vast explosion of available theory and research. Strategies for more effective treatment and prevention are being hotly debated in contemporary American culture. There is growing awareness of the significant ways in which mental illness “ripples” on families and friends. The


1. According to the 2014 ACA code of ethics “Counselors respect the diversity of clients, trainees, and research participants and seek training in areas in which they are at risk of imposing their val 6



challenges facing churches and communities to care for increasing numbers of troubled individuals have never been greater. What an incredible opportunity this mo- ment in history can be to reimage what it means to make a difference in foe lives of hurting persons (Yar- .)؟200 ,.house et al

The Assets and Limitations o f Direct Lecturing in a Psychopathology Course

There is a delicate balance needed between pro- viding information via the traditional lecture format and identifying other effective treatment strategies for students. We probably lecture 30-50% of any given class session. This usually takes foe format of supple- menting their assigned or recommended readings—or drawing out the applications and implications for their Christian worldview and lifestyle. We have both had excellent success when we do collaborative case studies (writtenorvideotaped).Wetakeourstudentsthrough carefol assessment, classification, and diagnosis, fol- lowed by a biopsychosocial formulation (etiology and maintenance), and su^ested treatment protocol (goals and recommendations). Also, we encourage them to address issues ofprognosis (resiliency) and prevention. W e believe fois helps us to give our students a good feel for the many important dimensions of psychopathol- ogy (assessment, treatment, and prevention). There are scores of case study books now available—and ex- cellent consciousness-raising resources available on the internet (e.g., Our pro- fessional associations (e.g., or advocacy groups (e.g., v^ can prove to be wonder- fully rich sources of classroom content. In makes sense to us to be creative in our pedagogical efforts—and deeply respect the vast variety of student learning styles. After decades of trying to communicate impor- tant course content, we are more convinced than ever foe core truth of a course in psychopathology or more “caught” than “taught.” Once again, authentic and credible role-modeling seems to be absolutely impera- tive (Garber, 1996).

Effective Ways to Use Audiovisual Materials

Initially, we stress foe importance of establishing inter-rater reliability for case studies. That is, can stu- dents agree that they saw or heard foe same things? This often takes hours and hours of hard work. We tend to use briefclinical vignettes (e.g., 8-10 minutes). There is foe temptation on foe part of many students to offer a “diagnosis” after watching or listening for only short periods of time. Likewise, we stress foe

importance ؛٠the decision-making process in smail groups, especially when it comes to differential diagno- sis (“rule outs”). Once we have achieved a reasonable degree of inter-rater reliability, we can shift to treat- ment and prevention considerations (e.g., what might have helped this individual?). Many of the available video series that come with major course textbooks have instructor guides that can help focus on the most important questions that need to be asked. Our stu- dents usually find this to be a fascinating (and some- times infuriating) process o f collaborative learning. Frankly, we want our students to start thinking like a highly skilled and sensitive clinician. We also want them to develop a more creative and proactive mind- set (prevention) than the more traditional or remedial (allopathic mindset—“Don’t fix it until it ل$broke!”). Sadly, our current health care and human service sys- tems rarely have this kind of awareness. We continue to spend foe vast majority of our increasingly limited resources (98%) on treating problems after the fact.

Creative £valuation Strategies

There is most definitely a need for measuring mas- tery of essential course content through traditional examinations strategies (usually a combination of ob- jective and essay questions). Increasingly, we have been using collaborative exercises that require our students to work together on topical or case study presentations. Obviously, we value comprehension and understand- ing of the course than mere memorization, and our evaluation strategies need to reflect this mindset. Re- cently, we have encouraged our students to take their examinations together (groups of three or four) in a time-limited format (two hours) with open access to their notes and readings. Our students have described fois as one ofthe most powerful and meaningfol exam- inations they have ever taken. They often remark, “W e could have talked for hours!”; it pleases us to hear this because we believe that fois method might help them become more collaborative and creative clinicians or laypersons in the future. And it most certainly seems to help make their core constructs ofhealth, happiness, and holiness even more explicit and overt.

Resources for Instructors and Students

At foe undergraduate level we have had the most success with Ronald Comer’s Abnormal Psychology (2013). At foe graduate level we have found Robert Meyer’s The Clinicians Handbook (2006) to be espe- cially usefol. At both levels, we recommend that the student purchase one format of the DSM-5 (2013).

1. According to the 2014 ACA code of ethics “Counselors respect the diversity of clients, trainees, and research participants and seek training in areas in which they are at risk of imposing their val 7

Our coauthored textbook {Modern Psychopathologies, 2005) has also been well-received. It is currently being updated for the DSM’5 and for more recent available theory and research. For specialty topics in foe areas re- lated to sexuality, we recommend Mark Yarhouse and FricaTan’sSexualityandSexTherapy(2014).Wealso post many resources on Blackboard for our students, and offer handouts in class to help us focus classroom presentations.

To gain access to excellent teaching videos and DVDs, we have directly approached publishers of some of the best selling undergraduate textbooks (e.g., W orth). W ith Comer, for example, there are some excellent resources available to enhance class- room teaching. On our shelves we also have scores of case study books that seem to be especially useful in engaging our student (e.g., Schwartzberg, 2000). For our graduate students, we find it helpful to introduce them to the Treatment Planner series (wvw.wiley. com), which covers nearly 30 targeted populations and problems.

Fxcellent internet sites are also usefol ways to en- hance student learning. Internet Mental Health (www. is our favorite, since it provides di- rect links to diagnoses, research literatures, and client or family resources to increase awareness and under- standing among those most directly by the human face of emotional distress. We would also encourage you to direct students to the websites ofthe major mental health professions (psychiatry, clinical or counseling psychology, social work, psychiatric nursing, pastoral care). There are excellent professional journals that cover topics related to psychopathology (e.gajournai ofAbnormalBehavior).

Conclusions and Future Directions

In the final chapter of our book {Modern Psychopa– thologiesiA Comprehensive Christian Appraisal, 2005), we discussed ways in which foe church could impact the field—and the field could impact the church. Frankly, the issue at fois present moment seems to be largely one of education and nscious-raising in both directions. We were encouraged to see the release of foe two-volume work (APA Handbook ofthe Psychol· ogy ofReligion and spirituality, 2013) this past spring. It speaks directly to issues of etiology and maintenance, effective treatment, and much-needed preventive ef- forts. The data clearly supports that the church is an important therapeutic resource for hurting persons and their loved ones. Likewise, there are chapters on foe many expressions of serious mental illness and dis-

ease, and how the resources of the f؛dth-based commu- nity can be mobilized to make a significant difference in word and deed.

This will require that we become “uncommon de- cency” (convicted civility; Mouw, 2 0 0 ل) in our discus- sions between Athens (academy) and the Jerusalem (church). Students of psychopathology—at whatever level—need to learn to find effective ways to be “bilin- gual” and “bicultural” (i.e., able to cross cultural for the cause of Christ). Responding to the reality of mental illness has much to do with what it means to promote shalom (“until justice and mercy embrace” (cite?)). To do fois well, we need to image the character and con- cerns ofGod in word in deed ^ones & Butman,2011). Obviously, fois means we need to know what it means to confess Jesus Christ as Lord, seek after righteous- ness, and love our brothers and sisters. The heart ofthe matter seems to be foe call to incarnate foe important truths ofpsychopathology in word and deed—and find more effective ways to interpersonally mediate these truths. We do not see how psychopathology could be taught in a cold and aloof manner (objective and dis- passionate). How we approach foe course content and format should speak volumes about what it means to be a man or woman of depth and substance—whose beliefs and behaviors are consistent (integrity). W e in- vite your response as we continue to explore these foal- lenges together and apart.

American Psychiatric Association (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual ofmental disorders (DSM5). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association.

Bain, K. (2004). w h a t the best college teachers do. Cambridge, UK: Harvard University Press.

Bilezikian, G .97(رول. Community 101. Grand Rapids, MI: Zonder- van.

Butman, R. (2012, November). On listening to conversations be- tween Jerusalem and Athens. Invited keynote address at Annual Mental Health and Missions Conference, Angola, Indiana.

Comer, R. (2013). Abnormal psychology. New York, NY: Worth.

Deuck, A., & Reimer, j. (2009). A peaceable psychology. Pasadena, CA: Puller Seminary.

Francis, A. (2013). Bssentials of psychiatric diagnosis. New York, NY: Guilford Press.

Garber, s. (1996). The fabric of faithhrlness. Downer’s Grove, IT: InterVarsity.

Jones, S., & Butman, R. (2011). Modern ^ychotherapies: A com- prehensive Christian appraisal. Downer’s Grove, IT: InterVarsity.

McLemore, c. (2006). Toxic relationships and how to change them. New York, NY: Wiley-Interscience.


1. According to the 2014 ACA code of ethics “Counselors respect the diversity of clients, trainees, and research participants and seek training in areas in which they are at risk of imposing their val 8

Answer must be approximately 200 words. 

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