Differentiate between primary and secondary sources.

The issue of concussion in sport is a matter of global public interest that is currently under dispute by educational, legal, and medical professionals and scientists. In this article we discuss the problem from philosophical, bioethical, and sports ethical perspectives. We articulate conceptual differences in approaches to definition and therefore diagnosis of concussion. We critically review similarities and differences in the leading consensus statements that guide the treatment of concussion diagnosis and treatment in sports. We then present a series of ethical problems including issues that relate to paternalistic intervention in the lives of athletes in order to prevent harm to athletes, conflicting and competing interests, and confidentiality.

Caron, Jeffrey, and Bloom, Gordon. (2015). “Ethical Issues Surrounding Concussions and Player Safety in Professional Ice Hockey.” Neuroethics 8.1: 5–13. Web.

Concussions in professional sports have received increased attention, which is partly attributable to evidence that found concussion incidence rates were much higher than previously thought (Echlin et al. Journal of Neurosurgical Focus 29:1–10, 2010). Further to this, professional hockey players articulated how their concussion symptoms affected their professional careers, interpersonal relationships, and qualities of life (Caron et al. Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology 35:168–179, 2013). Researchers are beginning to associate multiple/repeated concussions with Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy (CTE), a structural brain injury that is characterized by tau protein deposits in distinct areas of the brain (McKee et al. Brain 136:43–64, 2013). Taken together, concussions impact many people in the sporting community from current and former professional athletes and their families to medical and health professionals and researchers. In light of the growing awareness and sensitivity towards concussions, the purposeof this paper is to provide recommendations that are designed to improve player safety in professional hockey and address the ethical issues surrounding these suggestions.

Mccalla, Sandra, and Shepherd, Neil. “MORAL/ETHICAL ANALYSIS OF PERFORMANCE ENHANCEMENT IN SPORTS.” International Journal of Arts & Sciences 7.4 (2014): 371–381. Web.

From as early as human memory can go, individuals in various cultures have engaged in various recreational and competitive activities. It is from these recreational, entertainment and competition activities that more organized and structured competitive games and sports were developed. The foundation of these competitive sports hinges on fairness and honesty but these ethical concepts are not always upheld. It is with this in mind that this paper seeks to offer a philosophical investigation into the use of performance enhancing drugs in competitive sports with a focus on the importance of ethics and fair play. We believe that the existing system of banning performance enhancement drugs and punishing athletes caught using same may be warranted in order to maintain the integrity of sports. In a quest to respond to the issues raised on fairness, our discussions will focus on an ethical framework. From this ethical perspective, we combine Jeremy Bentham’s Utilitarian theory with Kant’s Deontology theory to show how a combination of both theories can provide one possible response to the ethical actions of athletes in respect to the use of performance enhancers. We argue for a form of ‘self duty’ that all athletes should have to the ethical rules as is applied to honesty and integrity.

Hums, Mary, Barr, Carol, and Gullion, Laurie. “The Ethical Issues Confronting Managers in the Sport Industry.” Journal of Business Ethics 20.1 (1999): 51–66. Web.

The sport industry is an extremely diverse industry, including segments such as professional sport, intercollegiate athletics, health and fitness, recreational sport and facility management. The industry is currently experiencing rapid growth and development, and as it grows, sport managers in the different segments encounter ethical issues which are often unique to each segment. The professional sport, intercollegiate athletics, health and fitness, recreational sport and facility management segments of the sport industry are examined and the various ethical issues facing managers in each of these segments are discussed.

2.  Tell the class how you found the materials (What you typed into the library search, etc.)


3.  Explain what you learned from the articles specifically, how the articles contribute to our knowledge of the topic?

Differentiate between primary and secondary sources: As a student, you will be asked to write essays, case studies, term papers, research papers, etc.  In some instances, professors may only require secondary sources.  In other cases, your professors may require a primary source.  There may even be instances where a professor would allow both primary and secondary sources.  For this reason, it is essential for you as a student to be able to differentiate between primary and secondary sources.


Primary Source: Primary sources are from research that one conducts directly on their own.  The study can be based upon numerical data or quantitative analysis, or it can be based upon strategies of inquiry or qualitative research.  Here are some ways students can gather information from primary sources. A student can gather primary information from their eyewitness account of an event, or through an interview or a survey (not an exhaustive list).

Primary sources should be read carefully and should not be taken for the literal truth.  The reader must consider the author, the purpose, and the audience.  It is also important to consider the context.  For instance, look at the period in which the piece was written, then find the differences between that time and today.


Secondary Sources:  Secondary sources are research and data collected by another person or body.  A literature review is compiling information about your topic from existing sources.  These sources would be secondary sources.

Consider this example:  You are writing an essay for a class.  In this essay, you are required to use three academic sources.  The journal articles chosen as support would be classified as secondary sources.  This is information you are using which comes from a source other than your own account or experience.

Now, on the other hand, if you plan to incorporate your personal experience or own eye-witness account of an event, then this would be a primary source.

Examples of Primary Sources: Primary sources are original documents: speeches, diaries, interviews, observation, and surveys.

Examples of Secondary Sources: Secondary sources are at least one step removed from the primary source; often written about a primary source: articles, textbooks, book review.

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