Are racial/ethnic minorities less likely to be compliant with Type II Diabetes treatment compared to non-minority groups?

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Are racial/ethnic minorities less likely to be compliant with Type II Diabetes treatment compared to non-minority groups?


Description of public health issue

The public health issue chosen is Type II diabetes as it relates to minority populations. The variable that is being researched is whether or not compliance with medications differs between minority and non-minority racial/ethnic populations. Diabetes remains the 7th leading cause of death within the United States alone with greater than 30 million people diagnosed with Diabetes, and over 84 million diagnosed with prediabetes (CDC, 2019). Diabetes has been linked to cardiovascular disease, neuropathy, chronic kidney disease, eye damage, peripheral vascular disease affecting extremities, skin conditions, opportunistic infection, and mental illness such as Alzheimer’s or dementia (Mayo Clinic, 2018).

It has been found that 15.1% of American Indians, 12.7% of Hispanics, 12.1% of Black non-Hispanics, were diagnosed with diabetes between the years of 2013-2015 compared to only 8% of Asians and 7.4% of White non-Hispanics (CDC, 2019). For racial and ethnic minorities, it has been found that there is worse control of diabetes, higher prevalence rates, and increased complication rates (Peek, 2007). Understanding what specific risk factors these patients may have, as well as how to reduce the health disparity between races is important in improving health outcomes across all populations.

Literature Review Matrix Template


Author/ Date – (APA Style)

Theoretical/ Conceptual Framework Study Objectives, Research Question(s)/ Hypotheses Study Population Methodology (Type of Study)/ Intervention Design (if applicable) Analysis, Results & Major Findings Strengths/ Limitations Conclusions Recommendations Implications for Future Research Implications for Practice

Kelley, C. F., Mannino, D. M., Homa, D. M., Savage-Brown, A., & Holguin, F. (2005). Asthma phenotypes, risk factors, and measures of severity in a national sample of US children. Pediatrics, 115(3), 726-731.


Variation of risk factors and measures of asthma severity by asthma phenotypes.


Are there differences in demographic or potential risk factors between children with different asthma phenotypes? Are there differences in measures of severity between children with different asthma phenotypes?


National sample of children 6-16 years of age.


Cross-sectional study using data from the NHANES III.


Used questionnaire & skin-prick testing data to classify children into 5 asthma phenotypes; Multivariable regression used to determine if demographic and risk factors varied between phenotypes & if measures of severity varied between phenotypes. Risk factors and measures of severity varied by asthma phenotype.


Strengths: Additional skin-prick testing data available for classification of phenotypes; Large sample size;


Cross-sectional nature of data; Much of the data were self-reported by an adult proxy; Phenotypic definitions may not represent true differences in asthma presentation;


A better sub classification of both children and adults with asthma could lead to better treatment and intervention for asthma.


True nature of relationship between body mass index (BMI) and asthma needs to be studied longitudinally; Further examination of whether children with frequent respiratory symptoms are “undiagnosed asthma”.


Children with “resolved asthma” phenotype should be clinically monitored to avoid development of (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease) COPD in adulthood.

©2010 Walden University Writing Center

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