Answer to peers for DQs

***** please respond to peers DQs answer separately, add citations and references 🙂 ****

Answer one: Musculoskeletal disorders (MSD) are conditions that can affect your muscles, bones, and joints. Some common MSDs include: tendinitis, carpal tunnel syndrome, osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, fibromyalgia, and bone fractures. The risk of developing MSDs can increase depending on occupation. Some ergonomic risk factors include: repetition, force, and posture. Individual risk factors include: poor work practices, poor fitness, and poor health habits. Both categories of risk factors are a result from an extended over time exposure. (Middlesworth, 2019)

Common symptoms of MSDs can include: recurrent pain, stiff joints, swelling, and dull aches. While all of these symptoms can affect activities of daily living (ADLs) there are way to help manage the symptoms to give the person suffering from MSDs a better quality of life. Doctors recommend treatment plans based on the specific diagnosis and the severity of the symptoms. Some interventions can include: exercise, medications, physical therapy, and occupational therapy. (Middlesworth, 2019)


Middlesworth, M. (2019). The Definition and Causes of Musculoskeletal Disorders. Philadelphia: FA Davis Co.

Answer two: Abnormal pathophysiological changes in the musculoskeletal system occur due to injuries, infection, tumors, inflammatory or noninflammatory issues (Falkner & Green, 2018). Common changes in this system include a bone loss and atrophy of muscles as the body ages; however, these common occurrences may still cause issues or concerns for patients (Falkner & Green, 2018). Symptoms associated with these findings include pain, swelling, numbness, muscle spasms, stiffness, and decreased range of motion (Falkner & Green, 2018). These symptoms affect patient function because they may feel more confined due to their change in mobility. The patients may not be able to perform ADLs or other daily tasks as easily and may need more assistance.

Abnormal pathophysiological changes in the metabolic system may occur due to increased stress, trauma, surgery, infection, cancer, a disruption in hormone production and secretion, or an autoimmune disease (Falkner & Green, 2018). Diabetes Mellitus, Cushing’s syndrome, and polycystic ovary syndrome are a few of the abnormal metabolic impairments (Falkner & Green, 2018). These findings impact a patient’s level of health when they become medically unstable due to their changes. They may be required to take daily medication or get their blood sugar up two four times a day.

The multisystem health dysfunction involves sepsis. This infection causes symptoms of temperature and heart rate change, altered level of consciousness, swelling or redness around a wound (Falkner & Green, 2018). This change can impact a patient’s function because it can be life threatening. The patient will need several tests and lab draws and will remain under close observation during the infection (Falkner & Green, 2018).

Falkner, A. & Green, S. (2018). Grand Canyon University (Ed). Pathophysiology Clinical Applications for Client Health. Retrieved from

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