Analyze and summarize the individual’s major contributions to scientific or psychological thought.

Assignment 1 Due Thursday Aug 1 by Noon CST (2 Peer Reviews Due by Saturday Midnight)

· Identify one mathematical or scientific Gestalt antecedent individual, Gestalt psychologist, psychoanalyst, individual psychologist, or analytical psychologist from this unit’s assigned readings. 

· Analyze and summarize the individual’s major contributions to scientific or psychological thought.

· Explain how the individual’s ideas adhere to gestalt, topographical psychology, social psychology, cross-cultural psychology, psychoanalytical, individual psychology, or analytic psychology principles 

Assignment 2 Due Thursday Aug 1 by 4PM CST. (2 Peer Reviews Due by Saturday Midnight)

Each student will locate and read a peer-reviewed journal article found in the Online Library and published within the past five years that relates to the main points found in this unit’s assigned chapters.   

Each student will summarize the article and provide the URL link to where it is located; identify any relationship between the research article and the main points of the assigned chapters; and discuss how it relates to any main point(s) in this unit’s assigned chapters. Article abstracts are not sufficient for analysis of relationships between the article and the assigned readings historical ideas main points. You must read the entire article to come to your conclusions. 

Assignment 3 Due Aug 3 Midnight CST

Short Essay

As we have moved throughout this course, I have repeatedly emphasized the fact that psychology’s past led to its present and can be seen all around us. On a daily basis, we are bombarded with the real-life application of psychology’s philosophies and principles. For the bonus activity, you have the opportunity to earn 10 points by completing two of the following activities:

1. Write a short essay on how psychology’s philosophical past influences you today.

2. Write a short essay on how psychology’s philosophical past influences society today.

Essay Rubric

These essays are worth up to 5 bonus points each, which will be assigned based on the degree to which the essays fulfill the following requirements:

1. The essay responds directly and intelligently to the prompt.

2. The essay refers specifically and accurately to assigned texts.

At the discretion of the instructor, points will be taken off any response that does not fulfill these goals.

Unit 8B: Chapter 16 Notes Adapted from History of Psychology: The Making of a Science (Edward P. Kardas, 2014) Susanne Nishino, Ph.D. 2013 Chapter 16 : Personality & Psychopathology The 19 th Century • Historical change accelerated in 19 th cent ury • Working classes becoming more powerful, more nationalistic, and anti -Semitic • “Out of the working class sprang socialism; out of the lower middle class and peasantry arose both virulent nationalism and Christian Socialism… The forces of racial prejudic e and national hatred, which they had thought dispelled by the light of reason and the rule of law, re -emerged in terrifying force as the “century of progress” breathed its last” (Schorske, 1980, quoted p.

364). • Fin de siecle (end of the century) French fo r this era The 19 th Century: Psychopathology & The Unconscious • Science not immune to doubt, study of physiology more difficult than anticipated, psychology, psychiatry, & neurology had emerged as new sciences but progress halting • In vacuum spiritualism ma de revival, James & Jung interested observers • Increase in “nervous disorders” & attempt to classify & treat them, neurasthenia (nervous exhaustion) & hysteria (conversion reaction) diagnosed more often, search for biomedical causes failed, therapies & cure s sought, especially hypnosis • Building on older approaches to psychopathology, Freud successfully led new movement, primarily sought to identify & cure specific psychopathologies by exploring unconscious mind of patients Early Psychotherapies • Practice of psychotherapy different today, models for therapy were yet to be developed • Freud, Jung, Adler, Horney, Anna Freud created new models for psychotherapy built upon tenuous scientific foundation • Each felt need to attack psychopathology from psychological angl e, constructed theories of personality along with insight therapies for personality problems – Freud premise of infantile sexuality – Jung ancient & hidden manifestations of human evolution in collective unconscious – Adler focus on social factors in family & e arly life • Horney rejected Freud’s penis envy to explain Oedipus Complex, proposed Womb Envy as alternative • Anna Freud, changed father’s theories where she believed had to, disagreed over the importance of mothering in development Psychopathology DSM – 14 • Today Diagnostic & Statistical Manual (DSM -IV), classified psychopathology into five axes – Clinical Syndromes (Axis 1) – Developmental & Personality Disorders (Axis 2) – Physical Conditions (Axis 3) – Severity of Psychosocial Stressors (Axis IV) – Highest Level of Functioning (Axis V) • New revision (DSM -V) in process, designed “to move away from a classification that focused on reliability while inadvertently sacrificing validity toward a classification that is far more clinically useful than that of the DSM -IV and far more open to validation” (Bernstein, 2011, quoted p. 366) • Early years of psychotherapy main classification neuroses & psychoses – Neurosis personalities did not disintegrate – Psychosis lead to personality disintegration – Terms no longer used as descriptors of personality because not specific enough Historical Background of Psychopathology • Historical roots of psychopathology ancient, archeological evidence for trephination, idea people being possessed by demons long history, Bethlem Royal Hospital founded 1247, another approach isolation of sufferers in asylums • By 18 th century belief in asylum model began to change, Pussin & Pinel in France removed chains & straitjackets, saw them improve, new era dawning in treatment of psychopathology • During 19 th century, attitudes toward victims of psychopathology changed, medical model dominated • Still as Europe became more industrialized, number of sufferers increased, asylums & hospitals could not handle overflow, any treatment godsend, zeitgeist ready for Freud Sigmun d Freud (1856 -1939): Psychoanalysis • Developed scientific skills, positivistic attitude toward science, interest in neurology, Charcot just beginning research on hysteria, hysteria seemed to have no connection between symptoms & underlying physiology • Charc ot believed physiological cause existed, not discovered, also experimented with hypnosis as cure for hysteria • Freud adopted hypnosis early as treatment for hysteria, abandoned for “talking cure,” name given by Josef Breuer • Study & treatment of hysteria Fre ud’s avenue to fame • Never treated Anna O., persuaded Breuer to publish case, book Studies on Hysteria (Breuer & Freud, 1895) marked beginning of psychoanalysis, others to take notice of Freud Freud: Free Association, Resistance & Transference • Began to de velop new techniques to cure symptoms, also theoretical concepts designed to explain their origin • Abandoned hypnotism as a technique, substituted free association = a therapeutic technique in which patients are encouraged to speak freely in the presence of their therapist, who listens and, later, interprets the content of their utterances • Also began to develop important concepts related to free association, the more reluctant to free associate the closer to root of problem, believed resistance sign of progr ess in therapy, Freud also noticed that patients transferred their problems from actual source to therapist, often seeing therapist as source of ideas that distressed, Freud also saw transference as normal & necessary part of therapeutic process Instincts : Border With Biology • Freud always preserved link between personality theory & biology • Most obvious linkage between personality & instincts of sex & aggression • Freud 1 st emphasized connection between sexuality & personality using libido, later added Thana tos connection to explain human propensity toward violence • Television & movies still follow his model emphasizing romance, violent action, or both. Freud: Unconscious and Sexuality • Several groundbreaking books related to psychoanalysis, laid down basic te nets including role of unconscious motivation, overarching importance of child sexuality, & dream analysis • Childhood sexuality, in place of actual molestation Freud substituted central role in theorizing childhood sexuality as biologically based instinct, began to believe patient problems sexually based but only symbolically, later theorizing based on premise that children possessed unconscious sexual motivations from early age • Work on hysteria, psychoanalytic method, idea that mental illness from early exp erience, importance of dreams and unconscious, infantile sexuality, nature of transference • Worked to make psychoanalysis world -wide movement, agreeable Jung being president & move to Zurich because wanted to internationalize movement, appear less Jewish, A dler resignation, World I, & hostility between Freud & Jung caused organizational chaos Freud : Dreams • Freud’s analysis of dreams began when began his own psychoanalysis after death of father • 1st realized importance of unconscious, worked out details of Oe dipus Complex • Came to believe that unconscious generated dreams are disguised fulfillment or suppressed or repressed with. • Interpretation of dreams major focus of therapeutic work, believed could not be interpreted in terms of manifest content (face conten t) but instead interpretation of latent (symbolic content), much was sexual • Described dreams as the “Royal Road to the Unconscious” • Today dreams studied via brain imaging techniques, cerebral dysfunctions, & brain lesions that affect recall of dreams Freud ’s Main Ideas • Structure of mental life, personality rooted in biology, topographical model • Development of personality, stages theory • Defense mechanisms Freud’s Main Ideas: Structure of Mental Life • Structure of mental life, personality rooted in biology – Id – home of libido instinctual sex drive, later added aggression (Thanatos, death instinct), id & Thanatos present at birth, only gradually brought under control by ego & super -ego parts of personality, pressured personality to satisfy innate urges – Ego dev eloped in childhood through experience, under control of reality principle, only ego visible to others – Super -Ego developed from social experience, composed of conscience (morality, right & wrong) & ego -ideal (inner model of self created from experience wit h others – Unconscious parts largest, include id & ego, conscious part smallest, lies at top of ego near surface in Freud’s topological model, in between conscious & unconscious lies preconscious, some parts of unconscious repressed and cannot be brought int o preconscious, other parts of unconscious can be moved to conscious, mental life complex amalgam of unconscious, conscious, & preconscious ideas Freud Str ucture of Mental Life: Id, Ego, & Super Ego • Id = in Freudian theory, home of the two sources of biolo gical energy. The id manifested the pleasure principle, which was primarily sexual while Thanatos represented the aggressive urges inherent in human behavior • Ego = the part of the personality closest to the outside world yet also able to observe and assess the contents of the conscious and the preconscious • Super -ego = the part of the personality that forms from the repression of the Oedipus Complex (the ego ideal) and socialization (the conscience) Freud’s Main Ideas: Development of Personality • Never work ed with children but created psychoanalysis as developmental stage theory, developed in conjunction with id, ego, & super -ego, children’s personalities & behaviors changed as passed through 4 stages • Stages associated with pleasures derived from control ove r various parts o the body as child matured & grew – Oral stage, mouth, birth to 1 st year – Anal stage, elimination of urine & feces, age 1 – 3 – Phallic stage, age 3 -6, most important, included Oedipus Complex for boys, Electra Complex for girls – Latency stage, age 6 to puberty, no clear indicator – Genital stage, emerged after puberty, marked by successful end of normal psychosexual development Freud: Oedipus & Electra Complexes • Oedipus Complex, boys, realized difference between men & women, assumed females lost their penis in battle with father, sons abandoned mother & identified with father, thus resolving crisis created by Oedipus Complex • Electra Complex (named by Jung), during Phallic Stage girls leaned the difference in sexes, experienced penis envy, lack of penis prevented from consummating childhood id desires for mother, began own heterosexual journey seeking lost penis first in father, later in husband, finally satisfied penis envy while giving birth Freud: Anxiety, Guilt, & Defense Mechanisms • Anxiety & resolution major part of Freudian theory, linked anxiety to ego, id, & super -ego • Reality anxiety real, came from threats to life from external events • Neurotic anxiety came from id, fear of doing something sexual or violent at wrong time • Moral anxiety from super -ego, forbidden action taken, guilt follows instead of pleasure, feelings of worthlessness & shame • Therapy success “if we succeed in transforming your hysterical misery into common unhappiness” (Breuer & Freud, 1895, quoted p. 375). • Much therapy cent ered on discovering how patients dealt with anxiety, patients did not realize how they coped, Freud proposed via unconscious methods, via defense mechanisms employed to allay or disguise anxieties Defense mechanisms • Anna Freud formalized definitions • Defe nse mechanisms operate unconsciously, distort reality in way that reduces anxiety – Repression, puts anxiety -arousing into unconscious, hides from ego, one goal of psychoanalysis to recover – Denial, reality distorted to reduce anxiety – Projection, blame others instead of self – Rationalization, reduces anxiety by substituting socially acceptable reason – Regression, retreating developmentally to cope with anxiety – Reaction Formation, unconsciously express exact opposite of true feelings – Displacement, super -ego preva ils, energy of ego redirected to socially acceptable – Compensation, substitution for perceived deficit, compensated by skill in other area C. G. Jung (1875 -1961): Collective Unconscious &Word Association Test • Dissertation “On the psychology and pathology o f so -called occult phenomena” • Worked with Eugen Bleuler, pioneer in psychotherapy, coined term schizophrenia • Adapted word association test = early psychological test 1 st devised by Sir Francis Galton in which participants responded to a long list of words by saying the 1 st word that entered their mind after hearing the test word • Jung used as method to investigate the minds of patients, use test as a quantitative measure of resistance by precisely measuring time it took to respond to each word, assumed respo nses to words that took longer indicated unconscious resistance • Met Freud March 3, 1907, Freud believed Jung would become his successor & launch psychoanalysis to greater audience, friendship disintegrated , final when Jung published book on new idea, Coll ective Unconscious, concept central to Jung’s later theorizing , final break 1913 • Collective Unconscious = Jung’s expansion of the unconscious to include primordial layer filled with universal “psychic structures” common to all humanity Jung: Analytical P sychology • Jung ventured near psychosis, called it “confrontation with the unconscious” • Began to seek confirmation that dream experiences were derived from the collective unconscious & symbols dreamt found universally, trips to US, Africa, & India confirme d ideas about collective unconscious • Began to collect & study ancient texts on alchemy to link them with his ideas about collective unconscious • Kept secret & detailed journals of mental experiences, Black Book & Red Book • Legacy Analytical Psychology, never achieved prominence of Freud, did inspire others to investigate claims of universal symbols Jung’s Main Ideas • Collective Unconscious main construct in Jung’s complex theory of personality, added archetypes, introduced extraversion & introversion, added persona, anima & animus, shadow • 1st to assume development throughout lifespan • Promoted typology of personality with 8 different types (extraversion, introversion, thinking, sensation) • Believed psyche had to obey rules of physical science • Jung & analysand faced each other, used free association, engaged in active dialogues with patient • Goal of Jungian therapy to attain individuation, state where various parts of personality can find “their fullest degree of differentiation, development, and exposure” (Hall & Lindsey, 1970, quoted p. 382.) • Used dreams & free association like Freud, stuck more closely to dream than Freud, mining for evidence, attention to big dreams & repetitive or serial dreams Jung: Archetypes • Collective Unconscious home to large number of a rchetypes (templates for behavior) Jung believed universally in everyone’s collective unconscious, came from collective experience of humankind over long evolutionary history of the species • Archetypes unconscious, only revealed during dreams, visions, humo r, or slips of tongue • Later turned to ancient alchemy texts, deduced alchemists had discovered archetypes in their own work, many archetypes, some more common Jung : Personality Theory • Theory of personality complex, included personal unconscious and colle ctive unconscious • Persona, public face of personality, developed under influence of social pressure = In Jungian theory the public face of the personality that conformed to social mores. The persona developed during childhood, typically disintegrated as pe ople aged • Anima & Animus, men & women possessed archetypes that expressed thoughts & feelings of opposite sex, male had anima, female had animus, assumed that sex roles complex = In Jungian theory, the archetypes that helped men understand women and women understand men, respectively • Psyche also contains shadow = In Jungian theory, the personality structure that holds one’s true motives & desires, follows ego around, represents hidden motives & desires (Jung’s counterpart to Id), where one’s true desires & feelings located, socially unacceptable to say aloud, protective structure for the normal personality Jung: Extraversion & Introversion • 1st to use terms, part of descriptions of personality every since, balance each other, e.g. If extraverted exhibited, then introverted personal unconscious • Added four functions of personality – Thinking & Feeling rational functions – Sensation & Intuition irrational functions – By combining types = theory of psychological types with eight separate categories – Meyers -Briggs Type Indicator test based on Jungian types Freud & Jung • Jung made collective unconscious central core of theory, Freud’s theory no similar structure • Jung rejected Freud’s primacy of infantile sexuality as dominant source of energy for personality • Both conside red selves scientists, plumbing depths of unconscious through introspective means, reliance on introspection as reliable method for psychological research source of discomfort for other psychologists , already had rejected introspection method • Jung’s intro spections difficult for others, ranged widely into ancient & universal mythology Alfred Adler (1870 -1937): Individual Psychology • Earlier follower of Freud, 1 st to defect from psychoanalysis, called his approach to personality Individual Psychology • Break w ith Freud when published own views on psychoanalysis, discomfort with Freud’s emphasis on primacy of sex as human motive, disagreement with division of personality into id, ego, & super -ego • Believed all individuals unique, had to be understood as interacti ve outcomes of multiplicity of factors, especially social • Brought new social factors into Individual Psychology, birth order, social interest, activity, striving for superiority • Later branched into new applied areas such as education, social activist, prom oted equality of women • His approach to psychopathology & treatment still practiced today Adler’s Main Ideas: Compensation • Approach to personality & psychotherapy focused on human uniqueness, interaction of people with environment, feelings of inferiority , & pursuit of short -term & long -term personal goals • Personality as unitary construct, not collection of parts, concentrated on here and now • Individual Psychology approach, every human unique, mistake to view otherwise, did not discount influence of biolog y, medical practice had shown some overcame physical deficits through force of will, transferred idea into psychiatry as “compensation” • Compensation = in Adlerian theory, when a person makes up for a real or perceived personality deficit by becoming more c ompetent in another way • Did not believe compensation needed to be unconscious, could be conscious Adler: Family Constellation & Child Guidance • Adler put stock in how people related to social environments, beginning with family constellation where 1 st int eract with mothers and later family members • Studied effects of birth order, 1 st born leaders, middle children competitive, last born more likely to be spoiled & develop into problem children • Placed importance on schools & education as social factors in dev elopment of personality, founded child guidance centers • Believed person’s style of life established by age of five, important to work with children young & malleable Adler: Inferiority Complex • Believed all people possessed feelings of inferiority, mere p ossession not abnormal, • Feelings of inferiority main source of energy in the personality, people strove to overcome feelings of inferiority through conscious & unconscious goal setting • Inferiority complex abnormal, required therapy = In Adlerian psycholo gy, when individuals develop such profound feelings of social inadequacy that they either become extremely discouraged, lack hope for the future, or overcompensate by exhibiting aggressive behavior Adler: Goals • Approach teleological, believed future more important than past because everyone had goals, short -term & long -term • Although past & present important, did not determine direction of action, instead past & present worked together with goals to determine future action • Individual chose the goal, choice was principal determinant of action or behavior • Goal directing behavior, allowed for hidden or unconscious goals, some goals fictional, beyond other goals lay final goal usually unknown partly or completely, final goal subjective & different for everyone, eventually answer question “Who am I? Nearly all have internal fictional goals, exception those that do not have final goals need therapy, might help identify who and what they want from life Adlerian Therapy • Adler insight therapy different from Jung & F reud • Six goals of Adlerian therapy – 1. foster social interest – 2. decrease of inferiority feelings – 3. changes in personal lifestyle, in perceptions & goals – 4. changing faulty motivation – 5. encouraging individual to recognize equality – 6. helping person become contributing human being • Adler’s “basic mistakes” about living that therapists should identify & correct= overgeneralization, false or impossible goals of security, misperceptions of life & life demands, minimization or denial of self worth, family values ” • Therapist free to suggest interpretations, did not emphasize past or use free association, dreams interpreted, did not believe in universal symbols or that dreams require decoding, believed dreams had to be interpreted in toto , not as single dreams, saw dreams as functional ways of solving future problems, not remembering dreams sign of mental health • Karen Horney (1885 -1952) • Disagreed with Freud emphasis on sexuality, aggression was innate, & importance of id in personality structure • Disagreed with use of penis envy to explain female personality, rejected explanation of Oedipus Complex, instead argued social facts in childhood within family were responsible for how children developed • Believed Freud’s developmental stages not universal, among first to pro mote Feminist Psychology, proposed Womb Envy in place of Freud’s Penis Envy, argued mean realize they cannot give birth, biologically excluded from life’s most creative activity Horney: Basic Anxiety • Accepted unconscious motivation & role of psyche in in itiating behavior, most original contribution = basic anxiety, “A wide range of adverse factors in the environment can produce this insecurity in a child” (Horney, 1945, quoted p. 392). • Adopted social basis for her personality theory, basic anxiety conditi ons could lead to development of neurotic personality • Identified 10 neurotic needs, collapsed into three – Moving toward people (affection, approval, partner) – Moving against (perfection, self -sufficiency, restriction) – Moving away (power, social recognition, personal achievement, self -admiration, need to exploit others – Later collapsed into compliance, aggression, & detachment needs, each represented coping strategy for neurotic anxiety – Unlike Freud believed categories developed through experience, not innate characteristics Horney: Ideal Self • Theories included comparison real self & ideal self, real self accurate & honest assessment of the personality, ideal self reflects potential life outcomes • Neurotic might create unrealistic ideal self to combat threats t o self -esteem • Therapy directed at making patients understand they had created false ideal selves Anna Freud (1895 -1982): Child & Adolescent Therapy • Extended Freud’s theories into childhood, supported father’s ideas about females & Oedipus Complex • Child t herapy as patients, used dream & daydream analysis as well as interpreted child drawings, believed children unable to free associate as well as adults, could not be analyzed by examining resistance • One of main contributions to psychoanalysis was clarifying defense mechanisms, in long run work began new direction in Freudian theory, more closely examining ego instead of id • War experiences caused her to rethink psychoanalysis, young children mother’s behavior made big difference, children modeled mothers’ be havior, observations led to revise Freudian theory to emphasize role of mothering, work led directly to John Bowlby & Mary Ainsworth importance of attachment in children under 3 years old • Recommended “psychological parent” given custody • Preserved many of f ather’s theoretical structure but changed where deemed necessary, placed more importance on ego & role of mother in child development, opened area of adolescent psychoanalysis Ideas • Many ideas still current in psychology • Scientific study of psychopatholog y most prominent • Changing world more urban & industrialized, rise of new abnormal conditions such as hysteria & neurasthenia • Treatment or therapy of conditions became part of new applied clinical psychology • Achievement of insight guided by therapists was n ew • Freud, Jung, & Adler developed therapeutic techniques based on models of personality – Freud – instincts sex & aggression, conflicts hidden in unconscious – Jung added collective unconscious primordial source of motivation, universal symbols, persona, bise xual anima & animus – Adler uncomfortable with focus on unconscious & partitioning of personality, instead emphasized holistic theory feelings of inferiority and overcoming them, individual psychology emphasized lifestyle & personal goals, stressed uniquenes s of individual • All three pioneered insight therapies still in practice today, inspired behavioral & humanistic therapies • Horney basic anxiety generated by people in environment, not internal conflicts, distanced from Freudian theory, especially penis env y in Electra Complex, proposed Womb Envy as mechanism in Oedipus Complex • Horney neurotic needs: moving toward people, moving away from people, moving against people, later described as compliance, aggression, & detachment • Horney explained neurosis as misma tch between ideal self and real self • Anna Freud clarified Freud’s ideas on defense mechanisms, early work with children opened area of child theory, later developed adolescent therapy, pointed out different from adult because did not seek therapy on own, i mportance of attachment between caretakers & children, worked to change laws governing custody of children, theoretical emphasis on role of ego & importance of mothering Summary • Period late 19 th to beginning of WWI marked end of extensive change in Europe , urbanization & industrialization, social changes clash with modernity • Science & technologies growing, inspiring practitioners to include all human activity • Psychology had been born, experienced its 1 st crisis • By 1913 mixture of Wundtian Voluntarism, Titc henerian Structuralism, American Functionalism, & insipient Behaviorism & Gestalt Psychology • Very little progress in understanding personality in normal or abnormal forms • When Freud & theories emerged turn of century many took notice, theories proved a ne w way to understand psychology, model personality, stages of development, dream analysis, & role of the unconscious original ideas • Jung from beginning with Freud disagreed with emphasis on infantile sexuality, revealed his concept of collective unconscious to Freud, ended collaboration, used collective unconscious as mainstay of his theories, added persona, anima, animus, shadow, & archetypes to create different theory of personality • Adler’s association with Freud predated Jung’s, defected early, disagreed with Freud over importance of infantile sexuality, disagreed with Freud & Jung over basic structure of personality, proposed unitary view of personality, emphasized role of social factors, stressed feelings of inferiority & how to overcome, sought to foste r social interest, decrease inferiority feelings, change styles of life, turn people to socially productive interests • Horney reacted negatively to Freud’s theories, proposed womb envy to counter penis envy, argued against instinctive drives of sex & viole nce, substituted theory where environment was the main cause of anxiety, believed patients could analyze themselves • Anna Freud among 1 st to provide psychoanalytic therapy to children, role of mother’s in child development, urged lawmakers that needs of chi ldren 1 st in issues of custody • Please see Glossary pp. 399 – 403.

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